Mobile LabBuild

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Lecture-3. More Objective-C concepts

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The Mobile Lab is a research group in the Department of Computer Science at Florida State University.

It is composed of a collection of students, both at the graduate and undergrad level.

Many of our members have internships and jobs at places such as: Google, IBM, and Intel.

By teaching and passing along the experience from our upper class allows The Lab to retain a great wealth of growing knowledge.

This isnt your normal academic research group. The Lab moves at a very fast pace and is organized more like Industry than school.

Our products are mobile and web applications for all platforms, however we specialize in Android and iOS.

Provided Internships and DevicesProvided both internships and equipment where we got to work with the Android Apps Team on Ice Cream Sandwich.Provided positions in their Extreme Blue program which fostered experience in all facets of the software development lifecycle.Shares industry knowledge by participating in local events and internships.Created their mobile application and helps publicize The Lab which extends our reach.

All donations and sponsorships we receive go directly in helping fund our research. We are always on the lookout for hardware that enables us to develop exciting new applications. Such devices include smart phones, new computers, sensors (we love SparkFun), audio/video equipment, and new mobile devices. If you are interested in becoming a sponsor or a partner please feel free to contact us.

The Mobile Lab @ Florida State University

The advent of 3D printing

3D PRINTED shoes by the experimental fashion house Continuum makes use of nylon fiber to make the shoe lightweight but strong.

If theres anything about technology that is both impressive and annoying, its that it is constantly evolving at high speed. You have to be on your feet all the time, keeping up with all the improvements in hardware, software plus all associated devices. Some advances benefit only certain industries, but others cross industry borders.

Three-dimensional digital modeling was one of those improvements, revolutionizing the way we visualize and create things. Being able to see our creations in all dimensions and perfect them without producing them into something real just yet, has made the process of design quicker and less costly. And now, technology has leapfrogged with the promise of tangible models through the  advent of 3D printing.

Ive always envisioned the process of 3D printing much like that of carving: starting with a block of some easy-to-cut material that stood still while little robotic blades came slicing and trimming to cut a form, taking bits away and drilling through, quite like the more traditional mechanical machining equipment.ADVERTISEMENT

But 3D printing actually works in reverse. It produces objects through a process better known as additive printing where the material is first printed layer by layer in a particular shape as dictated by its digital model, until it thickens into a three-dimensional figure.

Most of the time, these layers are produced by extruding melted plastic through fine tubes that run horizontally or vertically through an X or Y axis to create the shape for a particular layer. Much like extruding icing from a tube, or glue from the glue gun. Ive seen chocolate printers too! Yes, using melted chocolate, extruded layer by layer until it creates a form. Yum!

While 3D printing has only been recently making waves, the technology was actually developed way back in 1986 when inventor Charles Hull filed for the patenting of his Apparatus for Production of Three-Dimensional Objects by Stereo Lithography, more popularly known then with the short-cut term Stereolithography. The process was essentially a subsequent layering of thin material, slowly creating two-dimensional shapes with the variations in each stratum. Eventually, you get a three-dimensional form.

A few months ago, I was completely fascinated by a pair of web-like high-heeled shoes I found online. This pair that I had hoped to order was fabricated via 3D printing. And no, I didnt order as they were way too expensive, but they piqued my interest on the workings and possibilities of this new medium.

Then just a few weeks back, the same web-like material appeared on a dress modeled by burlesque queen Dita Von Teese. Garbed in the worlds first 3D printed dress, she wore a mesh-like material studded with crystals, with the mesh expanding to suit the outline of her body. This dress wasnt one of flowing fabric and fine details, but rather an industrial-goth looking get-up in the market, created to demonstrate the capabilities of the modern stereolithography printer to the eagerly awaiting market.

Not surprisingly there are any variants of the 3D printer:  some as precise, expensive and clinical looking as modern medical equipment, and others appearing so crude. One model I saw looks much like a photographers tripod, and there were others that looked like a students science project.  Price points vary too, with the pricier of the desktop ones selling at $3,300 to as low as $600!  The larger more professional models go for $60,000, and up to $600,000 for one, I hear that can print a substantially sized playhouse.ADVERTISEMENT

In the United States, many are already using 3D printing.  In the medical field, doctors  recreate bone structures, customize hearing aids and develop models for joint replacements. In the industrial design field, car prototypes, gadget samples and scale models are now easier to create, and can be ready within hours.

Once 3D printing goes mainstream, it will be heralding a new technological revolution. It will make home manufacturing possible, speed up commercial and industrial design, and will definitely spark a new wave of piracy problems.

Interestingly, what is now being developed to complement the printers are 3D scanners, something I tried using in Italy some six years ago, where it was selling for an arm and four legs. But just as soon as 3D printing is being brought to the masses, Im sure the scanning will be too.  It will bring its own set of advantages and issues, but Im not complaining.

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Stereolithography (SLA) is the oldest 3D printing process. Japanese engineer Hideo Kodama already published a first version of the technology for the layered construction of a solid plastic object back in 1981. Today, the inventor of 3D printing is however considered to be the American Charles Chuck Hull, who patented his method in 1984. The stereolithography process he developed allowed the production of three-dimensional plastic prototypes directly from computer-based data (CAD). The STL file format was developed as a by-product in the same process, becoming an additive manufacturing standard that is still in use today. Hull was also one of the founders of the first 3D printing company, 3D Systems, which developed the first commercial 3D printer.

Stereolithography is still the 3D printing process that allows components to be manufactured with the highest precision. Although SLA is now used for small-scale production (rapid manufacturing) and for the production of individual components, rapid prototyping is still the technologys core application.

Thanks to its speed and uncomplicated production without the need for finishing, the first prototypes can be profitably manufactured in the early stages of product development.

Stereolithography is considered as one of the fastest 3D printing methods. Production times that can take several hours to several days for a single component nevertheless have room for improvement. For example, innovative SLA-based printers apparently contribute to avoiding interruptions in the production of 3D objects thanks to a combined supply of oxygen and UV radiation, and instead allow continuous processing of the building material at a consistently high level of precision. SLA printers have so far had to pause between two printed layers to avoid curing additional material. A dead zone prevents further unwanted curing of the resin, allowing the irradiation process to continue without interruption. Thanks to the reduction of interruption periods, components are apparently finished up to 100 times faster than with the conventional stereolithography process. Examples of successful developments in this area are Carbon3D (CLIPprocess) and NewPro3D (ILI™ technology).

3D printing the game changer for future manufacturing?

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Printing has always been a manufacturing process that dates back to the invention of the first printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440. However, today the printing is being done in three dimensions (3D) and it is predicted to fundamentally transform the nature of manufacturing.

Additive not subtractive manufacturing

Traditional manufacturing has been subtractive in nature. Machine tools take large pieces of metal or wood and then cut, drill or shave away significant portions of the original material to create finished parts. This produces substantial waste and most products must be made in separate parts and assembled.

Early manufacturing required highly skilled craftsmen who could make the finished product from end to end largely by hand with some assistance from tools. Industrialisation of manufacturing from the late 18th Century onwards shifted to semi-skilled labour and mass production. The ability to build machine tools and automated production lines helped to lower cost and produce goods in bulk, but at a standard of quality that was uniform.

Throughout the 20th Century the focus of manufacturing has been on how to design products for mass production at a cost and quality that is competitive. Total Quality Management (TQM), Just in Time and lean manufacturing focused on improving quality while lowering cost. Coupled with these concepts has been the notion of agile manufacturing, or the ability to quickly reconfigure the production line to produce customised products.

However, the most recent development has been the emergence of rapid manufacturing or what is also referred to as additive manufacturing. This employs the technology of 3D printing to rapidly create finished parts or even full products in a variety of materials. Unlike earlier subtractive techniques, 3D printing is additive because it adds layers of material that is usually fused together into a solid object. This process produces significantly less waste. It is also highly accurate in its assembly.

3D printing from rapid prototyping to finished products to self-replicating machines

The first 3D printing was developed by Charles Hull in 1984 in a process known as stereo-lithography for which he secured a patent in 1986. These stereo-lithography apparatus (SLA) devices employ a UV laser beam to trace thin layers within a vat of liquid photo-curable polymers. As each slice is created a solid object is built.

These SLA were soon complemented with a series of alternative systems such as fused deposit modelling (FDM) and selective laser sintering (SLS). The FDM system employs a semi-liquid material (e.g. plastic) that is extruded from the printer head and builds the final object. The SLS system uses fine powdered substances (e.g. glass, aluminium, titanium, nylon) that are blown from the printer head and fused into a solid object via lasers.

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) patented a 3D printer system in 1993 that employed a similar process to 2D inkjet printers. By the mid-1990s a series of industrial 3D printers were being sold and used in manufacturing, but in 2005 Z Corp launched the Spectrum Z510 (see image below). This was a full colour, high-definition 3D printer capable of rapidly producing prototypes and models to a high level of accuracy.

The initial use of 3D printers such as the Z510 was to create full colour prototypes that could be used in new product development. These 3D printing technologies enabled much faster and lower cost modelling and prototyping to be undertaken. However, the use of 3D printing has begun to spread into mainstream manufacturing of finished products in a wide range of materials. For example, German company EOS has used 3D printers to manufacture violins out of a wood-like polymer that sound almost as good as their traditional cousins made from wood.

An example of the use of 3D printing in the manufacture of large and complex products is that of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space (EADS) Company. EADS is the manufacturer of the high technology civil and military aircraft such as the A380 Airbus and Eurofighter Typhoon. The company has been using 3D printers to create prototype parts, but is now working on introducing them to manufacture titanium parts and eventually entire wing sections. Another example is the Belgian CompanyLayerWisewhich used a 3D printer in February 2012 to manufacture a titanium replacement jawbone for an elderly woman.

However, one of the most potentially disruptive developments was the introduction in 2006 of the open source Reprap 3D printing project. This was an initiative of Dr Adrian Bowyer from the University of Bath in the United Kingdom. His vision was for a self-replicating machine that could put a manufacturing facility into the home of almost anyone on the planet.

The project commenced in 2005 and had generated its first working prototype by the following year. A biological evolutionary philosophy lies behind Reprap and when the first working Reprap 3D printer Darwin was created in 2008, it was rapidly put to work creating its own child which was then used to build a grandchild. Since then the second generation Reprap machine Mendel (see picture below) has been produced in 2009, and in 2010 the third generation Huxley model emerged.

As an open source, community project almost anyone can download the software and if they know someone with an existing Reprap they can have another one reproduced for subsequent assembly.

Similar open source 3D printing systems have emerged since the launch of Reprap. One of these is the Airwolf 3D printer from the United States (see photo below). This machine can produce a range of products in plastic and is designed to serve in both domestic and industrial environments.

The impact of 3D printing on future manufacturing

The future of 3D printers on manufacturing is still not entirely clear, however, there are some who predict that they will change the way in which manufacturing works. According to an article published inThe Economistin 2011, 3D printing has the potential to dramatically transform the way manufacturing operates. As additive systems, 3D printers are much less wasteful when compared to conventional subtractive manufacturing techniques. They also remove the need for substantial capital to be tied up in tooling, work-in-progress and raw materials. The factory may be eventually replaced with a digital production plant that can take a product from initial design to final production in a fraction of the time it currently takes.

The emergence of more advanced 3D printers will only increase the impact that such systems are likely to have on manufacturing. Some are predicting that the advent of such technologies is generating a Third Industrial Revolution. As the following video from The Economist outlines, there are companies such as Quirky and Shapeways from New York that are using 3D printing and crowd sourcing to generate a range of highly innovative products without the need for large, labour intensive and expensive factories.

Whether these machines ever fully replace conventional manufacturing systems only time will tell, however, it is clear that the pace of digital technology is moving ahead at a rapid speed. With 3D printing technologies the real value added in product manufacturing will be in the design and related software programs rather than the physical assembly.

They could also transform the distribution systems for physical products. No longer will retail stores need to stock large quantities of parts or finished products. Inventory might only n
eed to consist of the necessary stocks of 3D printable material, and customers will be able to place their orders online and have the product printed and shipped. For consumers who own their own 3D printers it may be simply a matter of downloading the necessary software and printing out the product.

If such technologies do become mainstream it is possible that the existing comparative advantage of low-cost manufacturing countries such as China may diminish. As The Economist article notes, the Chinese are also buying 3D printers, but there will be no benefit in having them make products in China only to ship them overseas. Such products can be made just as easily in the destination country.

For entrepreneurs, the advent of 3D printing manufacture promises to make it much easier to design and launch new products. The cost of new product development will fall considerably, and the cost of production will also come down. Increasingly customers are seeking more customisation in products. These 3D printing systems offer much greater opportunities for customising and also much greater opportunity for customers to actively co-create the final product.

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STLStereo Lithography3D SystemsCharles W. Hull1988CAD/CAM3D3D



OBJAliasWavefront3DAdvanced Visualizer3D3D3dsMaxLightWaveMayaOBJ





STLAMF3D SystemsStratasysMaterialise3MF3MF3DManufacturingFormat





are terms once restricted to technical or scientific literature and a public of engineers and technologists, but which now are familiar to all, filling the pages of magazines and television programmes. What lies behind this production technology?

Everything started in America, from the ideas of a physics engineer namedCharles Hull, who through passion started a series of experiments in 1983, in which he attempted to stack layers of synthetic resin, merging them together using ultraviolet rays, with the result of obtaining a final component. With his intuition, Charles Hull officially created thefirst ever version of3D printing in stereo-lithography, the patent for which was registered in 1984 by the company that employed Hull. After more than 30 years, thisadditive technologyhas evolved leading to a variety of other versions, as well as the creation of different types of material, able to transform an idea into a real object in just a blink of the eye.

Nowadays 3D printing can be achieved using different technologies depending on the materials, which require different processing methods. These types of 3D Printing areextrusion(FDM the process works on the extrusion of plastic or thermoplastic materials such as ABS),selective sinteringof materialsoriginally constituting a powder bed (Selective Laser Sintering, Electron Beam Melting, Direct Metal Laser Sintering, Selective Laser Melting),lamination(LOM the laminate materials constitute the layer that is processed using tangential or laser cutting systems), andstereolithography(the process of photo-polymerisation to solidify the liquid resin).

However, beyond the different types of process, the most significant change that has come about with the advent of 3D printing, is the changeover from manufacturing processes based on the principle of Design For Manufacturing to one of Design For Functionality. In other words,the mind can now concentrate on the functional aspectas additive manufacturing enables the production of any geometrical form, leading to printing in rapid prototyping in 3D.

The arrival and validation of 3D printing embraces the story of man, whose passion led to the creation of a production technology that has now become a standard. An industrial adventure that involved taking major risks, given that the company that employed him could no longer fund his research, to the point of him deciding to set up his own company, which now represents one of the most important businesses worldwide in the field of 3D printing, providing solutions that range from the printers to single components, all with a software technology developed entirely in house. We only need to consider that themarket of 3D printing and rapid prototyping services, according to recent figures, should reach around4 billion dollars by 2025, and that this technology will service not only the motor sport and automotive industries, the first to adopt it, but has also gained ground in the medical and healthcare sectors, and in the mechanical and aerospace industries, where parts are printed directly in orbit in theInternational Space Station.

Forward thinking, passion and courage lie at the base of these inventions that have transformed the world. They are the result of the genius of courageous captains, who despite the storm, leave the ports in the certainty of heading towards infinity.


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Lecture-3. More Objective-C concepts

Lecture-4. Few other Classes, Sending Messages

Lecture-5. Demo of UIAlertView UIImageView

Lecture-6. Configuring UI Controls, UIColor Class, Segues

Lecture-7. Segues, Navigation Controller, PlaylistBrowserApp

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Thomas Suarez: A 12-year-old app developer

Introduction to PhoneGap An Open Source Framework

Of the two, iOS and Android, which mobile development platform should I study?

Posted byEdward Skrodon Dec 1, 2014 inAppsIdeasComments Off

Which development platform should I study? Computer Science students and burgeoning software developers are often faced with the daunting task of choosing a language and development platform in which they will devote considerable time and energy.  Should a new developer learn Java and begin developing in the Android platform?  Or should the student study Objective C and devote their resources toward learning IOS? Furthermore, which tech will be obsolete in 10 years, forcing the developer to  either specialize in legacy code maintenance or to learn yet another language and platform (Does…

Posted byMegan Stanforthon Nov 13, 2014 inIdeasComments Off

As the market expands to wearable devices there are a few more things to be concerned about then how close we are to being able to our very own personal Jarvis. Wearable Devices hit the market last year with Google Glass. Before GoPro could panic after seeing the promotional videos, consumers started finding problems with Glass. Besides the insanely high price of $1,500, Glass implemented an interface that the market just wasnt ready for. The voice recognition software removed the element of anonymity, and the screen become an obstruction rather than an assistance to daily life. Apple and…

Posted byDoug Whiteon Mar 4, 2014 inIdeasComments Off

Posted byLeonard Cortellion Dec 17, 2013 inIdeasComments Off

One of the features often praised about Android is its flexibility and customizability as a platform. And, to that end, some users have been deciding to root their phones. In some cases a root is required to run a certain application, sometimes a user just wants more control over how their phone operates, and sometimes you just need to install the latest version of Android without waiting on your carrier. In this post, I will discuss the what, why, and how of rooting your Android device. Just what is rooting anyways? The Android operating system itself is based on Linux with…

Posted byiv11on Nov 1, 2013 inAndroidSubMenuIdeasComments Off

Im sure everyone has herd about Googles upcoming project, Google Glass, essentially a pair of glasses that run on Android and have built quite a stir when it comes to privacy. If you havent, you can catch up here: Is such product a Good Idea or a Bad Idea? To me, Google Glass is a great idea on paper, and the fact that you can actually an interactive software that you can easily interact with and having it able to film, locate, and detect thats in front of you is pretty…

Posted byAaron Gravelleon Aug 5, 2013 inIdeasComments Off

Saw this recently in my facebook new feed recently:  and I really like the idea of the device being both a phone and a desktop computer. I hope that phone manufactures jump on this idea, because I hate having to lug my big laptop everywhere. It would be nice to be working on something at home at my desk and when I need to go somewhere just slip it into my pocket and continue where I left off no matter where I am. About Aaron GravelleMail More Posts (2)

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The Mobile Lab @ Florida State University

3D Printing and its future

ashish, Posted on September 11, 2015, filed in:Hardware,Technology

3D printing A future where your printer connected to a desktop is capable of printing a solid object. Its a process of crafting three dimensional robust objects from a digital file using additive processes. An object is created by positioning consecutive layers of material until the whole object is shaped.

It is also known as rapid prototyping, a mechanized method where 3D objects are quickly made on a reasonably sized machine connected to a computer containing blueprints for the object.

Although the technology has become popular in recent days, it existed well in the 1980s. Charles Hull in 1984 first developed the technology for printing physical 3D objects from digital data. He obtained a patent for the technique Stereo lithography in 1986.

The concept of 3D printing is exciting to everyone. According to some futurists, 3D printing is opening up a whole new world which will make life as we know it today barely noticeable in the next few decades. 3D printers in the hands of consumers will mean the end of standardization, and the beginning of products personalized to every individual which helps to create a world where the products we buy have a better fit, a better match to ones personal style. Its an amazing explosion of creativity, personal aiding, global connectivity and disruptive innovation in the material world.

First of all, one should have the virtual designs of the object to be created. It is basically done using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, because the software is built with manufacturing in mind. Once the creation of the digital file is done, the file is prepared for printing by slicing the final model into many cross sectional layers, which are only a fraction of a millimeter thick.The 3D printer reads and blends every slice in such a way that there are hardly any visible sign of the layers.

Another method is using 3D scanners. It can be used to create the digital copy of an object using different technologies to generate a 3D model. These object layers can then be sent to a 3D printer that will print them out, one on top of the other, until they are built up into a complete 3D printed object.

There is more in the future as this field advances at a staggering rate and futurists are calling it the revolution of 3D printing like never before. Some of the fields where 3D printing application has highest scope in future are:

Some engines, lets say Jet engines have quite a few complex designs to manufacture. Fuel Nozzle of jet engines for example, can be developed at a much faster pace using 3D printing with more accuracy and enhanced design. Now that the American designers are working on 3-D printed cars they will find it easier to improvise the design for the advancement in performance.

Dr. David Shefflers class built a 3D-printed jet engine replica that was able to spin at 2,000 RPM.

3D printing is conquering the fashion world. Although the pioneering new technology still has limitations, more designers are today experimenting with it and creating entirely new looks with more distinguished and more qualitative output.

One of the most impact-full area of growth will be in the medical field. Where creation of artificial bones and limbs has made way from experimental to practical life and on the other hand there are investigations on the possibility of printing organic materials to replace defective human body parts. There are few cases of successful facial transplants and prosthetic jaw transplant, and 3D printing-based medical techniques have already saved countless lives and opened new doors in medicines which were not imagined before.

When something goes wrong with the machine parts in space, it is normal procedure to send replacements from earth , which is no easy job and costs millions of dollars. But with a 3D printer in space the required parts can directly printed in space saving up on vital time, cost and reduces potential risks.

Every idea is a revolution when it becomes pragmatically accessible from once being a theoretical dream. Advances in 3D technology has blended the unimaginable into every possible field.

The future of manufacturing is bound to change, with more goods being produced and much closer to point of purchase or consumption. Goods and products will be modified at the consumers end because altering them wont require re-tooling. With end users controlling the manufacturing themselves rather than engaging in trade with other people, it would revolutionize nature of commerce.