Rapid Prototyping SLA

The first Rapid Prototyping technique and still the most widely used.

Inexpensive compared to other techniques.

Uses a light-sensitive liquid polymer.

Requires post-curing since laser is not of high enough power to completely cure.

Long-term curing can lead to warping.

Parts are quite brittle and have a tacky surface.

No milling step so accuracy in z can suffer.

Support structures are typically required.

Process is simple: There are no milling or masking steps required.

Uncured material can be toxic. Ventilation is a must.

Stereolithography (SLA), the first Rapid Prototyping process, was developed by 3D Systems of Valencia, California, USA, founded in 1986. A vat of photosensitive resin contains a vertically-moving platform. The part under construction is supported by the platform that moves downward by a layer thickness (typically about 0.1 mm / 0.004 inches) for each layer. A laser beam traces out the shape of each layer and hardens the

The Stereolithography (SLA) System overall arrangement:

The sequence of steps for producing an Stereolithography (SLA) layer is shown in the following figures:

Uncured resin is removed and the model is post-cured to fully cure the resin. Because of the layered process, the model has a surface composed of stair steps. Sanding can remove the stair steps for a cosmetic finish. Model build orientation is important for stair stepping and build time. In general, orienting the long axis of the model vertically takes longer but has minimal stair steps. Orienting the long axis horizontally shortens build time but magnifies the stair steps. For aesthetic purposes, the model can be primed and painted.

During fabrication, if extremities of the part become too weak, it may be necessary to use supports to prop up the model. The supports can be generated by the program that creates the slices, and the supports are only used for fabrication. The following three figures show why supports are necessary:

A comparison of rapid prototyping technologies

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International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture

A comparison of rapid prototyping technologies

Until recently, prototypes had to be constructed by skilled model makers from 2D engineering drawings. This is a time-consuming and expensive process. With the advent of new layer manufacturing and CAD/CAM technologies, prototypes may now be rapidly produced from 3D computer models. There are many different rapid prototyping (RP) technologies available. This paper presents an overview of the current technologies and comments on their strengths and weaknesses. Data are given for common process parameters such as layer thickness, system accuracy and speed of operation. A taxonomy is also suggested, along with a preliminary guide to process selection based on the end use of the prototype.

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Id like to thank you guys for the work you have done for us lately. We (the ITW engineers) and our customers have been very happy with the Accura 25 SLA rapid prototypes you have made for us, and we are also pleased with the response time and service you have provided.

Stereolithography is a layer additive rapid prototyping process that creates a solid object from a 3D computer model by using a computer-controlled laser to draw cross-sections of the object in succession onto the surface of a liquid photopolymer. You can watch a short video about the process on ourStereolithographypage.

Typical tolerances on our SLA models are about +/- 0.005. For parts over 5 we can hold around +/- 0.001 to 0.0015 per inch. Part geometry and build orientation can also have an effect on tolerances.

High Resolution is a special mode on a Viper si2 SLA system. The diameter of the laser beam is decreased from about 0.010 to about 0.003-0.004 and parts are built at a layer thickness that has been shaved from 0.004 to 0.002. The effective area for this mode is 5×5. Parts best suited for high resolution are small with intricate detail and/or extremely small features. High Resolution parts are more expensive than their Normal Resolution counterpart.

The two biggest factors that determine the price of an SLA model are the part volume and the physical size. The unit price of a part tends to decrease as the quantity required increases.

The largest SLA model we can produce in one piece must fit within a 25x29x21 envelope. However, we can and have built larger parts. For those instances, we must produce the part in sections and then reassemble by hand using a variety of techniques. The smallest part we can build is constrained only by the limits of the Vipers High Resolution mode.

Orders are delivered via FedEx usually within two to four days from the time of order. Large parts can take longer and, of course, our backlog at the time of release will also play a role.

Our finishing team has a great passion for the artsy stuff. We really enjoy the challenges that projects of this nature can present. SLA models can be sanded, custom painted, machined, tapped, assembled, chrome plated, vacuum metallized and they are even compatible with hydrographics finishing. Yes, we can spice up your SLA model!

As much wood as a woodchuck would, if a woodchuck could chuck wood.

We can accept any of the following file formats: STL, Native Pro/E, Native SolidWorks, Parasolid, STEP and IGES. Other files types may be accepted, but a conversion fee could apply.

Our preference would be for you to export a binary file using the highest resolution setting your CAD package will allow. If this results in an abnormally large file size, or if you cannot get a fine enough resolution, you may submit one of the other preferred file formats for us to translate.

The best way for you to send us your data is to use the upload feature on our website. Upon your successful transfer, an automatic notification will alert several members of our team that your request has been submitted. If you prefer to stick with email, we kindly request that your attachment does not exceed 5MB.

Rapid application development

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

RAD tool and Rapid Application Development Tool redirect here. For development tools focused on making graphical user interfaces, seegraphical user interface builder.

Rapid-application development(RAD) is both a general term, used to refer to adaptive software development approaches, as well as the name forJames Martins approach to rapid development. In general, RAD approaches to software development put less emphasis on planning and more emphasis on an adaptive process. Prototypes are often used in addition to or sometimes even in place of design specifications.

RAD is especially well suited for (although not limited to) developing software that is driven by user interface requirements.Graphical user interface buildersare often called rapid application development tools. Other approaches to rapid development include theadaptiveagilespiral, andunifiedmodels.

Rapid application development was a response to plan-drivenwaterfallprocesses, developed in the 1970s and 1980s by Barry Boehm and Sir Drake, such as theStructured Systems Analysis and Design Method(SSADM). One of the problems with these methods is that they were based on a traditional engineering model used to design and build things like bridges and buildings. Software is an inherently different kind of artifact. Software can radically change the entire process used to solve a problem. As a result, knowledge gained from the development process itself can feed back to the requirements and design of the solution.[1]Plan-driven approaches attempt to rigidly define the requirements, the solution, and the plan to implement it, and have a process that discourage changes. RAD approaches, on the other hand, recognize that software development is a knowledge intensive process and provide flexible processes that help take advantage of knowledge gained during the project to improve or adapt the solution.

The first such RAD alternative was developed by Barry Boehm and was known as the spiral model. Boehm and other subsequent RAD approaches emphasized developing prototypes as well as or instead of rigorous design specifications. Prototypes had several advantages over traditional specifications:

Risk reduction. A prototype could test some of the most difficult potential parts of the system early on in the life-cycle. This can provide valuable information as to the feasibility of a design and can prevent the team from pursuing solutions that turn out to be too complex or time consuming to implement. This benefit of finding problems earlier in the life-cycle rather than later was a key benefit of the RAD approach. The earlier a problem can be found the cheaper it is to address.

Users are better at using and reacting than at creating specifications. In the waterfall model it was common for a user to sign off on a set of requirements but then when presented with an implemented system to suddenly realize that a given design lacked some critical features or was too complex. In general most users give much more useful feedback when they can experience a prototype of the running system rather than abstractly define what that system should be.

Prototypes can be usable and can evolve into the completed product. One approach used in some RAD methods was to build the system as a series of prototypes that evolve from minimal functionality to moderately useful to the final completed system. The advantage of this besides the two advantages above was that the users could get useful business functionality much earlier in the process.

Starting with the ideas ofBarry Boehmand others,James Martindeveloped the rapid application development approach during the 1980s atIBMand finally formalized it by publishing a book in 1991,Rapid Application Development. This has resulted in some confusion over the term RAD even among IT professionals. It is important to distinguish between RAD as a general alternative to the waterfall model and RAD as the specific method created by Martin. The Martin method was tailored toward knowledge intensive and UI intensive business systems.

These ideas were further developed and improved upon by RAD pioneers like James Kerr and Richard Hunter, who together wrote the seminal book on the subject, Inside RAD,[3]which followed the journey of a RAD project manager as he drove and refined the RAD Methodology in real-time on an actual RAD project. These practitioners, and those like them, helped RAD gain popularity as an alternative to traditional systems project life cycle approaches.

The RAD approach also matured during the period of peak interest inbusiness re-engineering. The idea of business process re-engineering was to radically rethink core business processes such as sales and customer support with the new capabilities of Information Technology in mind. RAD was often an essential part of larger business re engineering programs. The rapid prototyping approach of RAD was a key tool to help users and analysts think out of the box about innovative ways that technology might radically reinvent a core business process.[4][5]

The James Martin approach to RAD divides the process into four distinct phases:

combines elements of the system planning and systems analysis phases of theSystems Development Life Cycle(SDLC). Users, managers, and IT staff members discuss and agree on business needs, project scope, constraints, and system requirements. It ends when the team agrees on the key issues and obtains management authorization to continue.

during this phase, users interact with systems analysts and develop models and prototypes that represent all system processes, inputs, and outputs. The RAD groups or subgroups typically use a combination ofJoint Application Development(JAD) techniques andCASE toolsto translate user needs into working models.

is a continuous interactive process that allows users to understand, modify, and eventually approve a working model of the system that meets their needs.

focuses on program and application development task similar to the SDLC. In RAD, however, users continue to participate and can still suggest changes or improvements as actual screens or reports are developed. Its tasks are programming and application development, coding, unit-integration and system testing.

resembles the final tasks in the SDLC implementation phase, including data conversion, testing, changeover to the new system, and user training. Compared with traditional methods, the entire process is compressed. As a result, the new system is built, delivered, and placed in operation much sooner.

Pros and cons of rapid application development

In modern Information Technology environments, many systems are now built using some degree of Rapid Application Development[7](not necessarily the James Martin approach). In addition to Martins method,Agile methodsand theRational Unified Processare often used for RAD development.

Better quality. By having users interact with evolving prototypes the business functionality from a RAD project can often be much higher than that achieved via a waterfall model. The software can be more usable and has a better chance to focus on business problems that are critical to end users rather than technical problems of interest to developers.

Risk control. Although much of the literature on RAD focuses on speed and user involvement a critical feature of RAD done correctly is risk mitigation. Its worth remembering that Boehm initially characterized the spiral model as a risk based approach. A RAD approach can focus in early on the key risk factors and adjust to them based on empirical evidence collected in the early part of the process. E.g., the complexity of prototyping some of the most complex parts of the system.

More projects completed on time and within budget. By focusing on the development of incremental units the chances for catastrophic failures that have dogged large waterfall projects is reduced. In the Waterfall model it was common to come to a realization after six months or more of analysis and development that required a radical rethinking of the entire system. With RAD this kind of information can be discovered and acted upon earlier in the process.

The risk of a new approach. For most IT shops RAD was a new approach that required experienced professionals to rethink the way they worked. Humans are virtually always averse to change and any project undertaken with new tools or methods will be more likely to fail the first time simply due to the requirement for the team to learn.

Requires time of scarce resources. One thing virtually all approaches to RAD have in common is that there is much more interaction throughout the entire life-cycle between users and developers. In the waterfall model, users would define requirements and then mostly go away as developers created the system. In RAD users are involved from the beginning and through virtually the entire project. This requires that the business is willing to invest the time of application domain experts. The paradox is that the better the expert, the more they are familiar with their domain, the more they are required to actually run the business and it may be difficult to convince their supervisors to invest their time. Without such commitments RAD projects will not succeed.

Less control. One of the advantages of RAD is that it provides a flexible adaptable process. The ideal is to be able to adapt quickly to both problems and opportunities. There is an inevitable trade-off between flexibility and control, more of one means less of the other. If a project (e.g.life-critical software) values control more than agility RAD is not appropriate.

Poor design. The focus on prototypes can be taken too far in some cases resulting in a hack and test methodology where developers are constantly making minor changes to individual components and ignoring system architecture issues that could result in a better overall design. This can especially be an issue for methodologies such as Martins that focus so heavily on the user interface of the system.

Lack of scalability. RAD typically focuses on small to medium-sized project teams. The other issues cited above (less design and control) present special challenges when using a RAD approach for very large scale systems.

Brooks, Fred (1986). Kugler, H.J., ed.

No Silver Bullet Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering

. Information Processing 86. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V (North-Holland).ISBN0-444-70077-3

Boehm, Barry (May 1988).A Spiral Model of Software Development

Kerr, James M.; Hunter, Richard (1993). Inside RAD: How to Build a Fully Functional System in 90 Days or Less. McGraw-Hill.ISBN0-07-034223-7.

. Harper Collins e-books.ISBN0887306209.

. Macmillan.ISBN0-02-376775-8.

. Macmillan. pp.8190.ISBN0-02-376775-8.

Hotle, Matt (April 1314, 2010).The Disintegration of AD: Putting it Back Together Again

. Enterprise Integration Summit, São Paulo, Brazil: Gartner Group

. Addison Wesley. pp.37.ISBN0201616416.

Gerber, Aurona; Van Der Merwe, Alta; Alberts, Ronell (1618 November 2007).Practical Implications of Rapid Development Methodologies.

Proceedings of the Computer Science and Information technology Education Conference, CSITEd-2007

Andrew Begel, Nachiappan age and Perceptions of Agile Software Development in an Industrial Context: An Exploratory Study,

E. M. Maximilian and L. Williams. (2003). Assessing Test-driven Development at IBM. Proceedings of International Conference of Software Engineering, Portland, OR, pp. 564-569, 2003.

M. Stephens, Rosenberg, D. (2003). Extreme Programming Re factored: The Case Against XP. Apress, 2003.

Rapid Development: Taming Wild Software Schedules

, Microsoft Press Books,ISBN978-1-55615-900-8

Kerr, James M.; Hunter, Richard (1993).

Inside RAD: How to Build a Fully Functional System in 90 Days or Less

. McGraw-Hill.ISBN0-07-034223-7.

Ellen Gottesdiener (1995).RAD Realities: Beyond the Hype to How RAD Really WorksApplication Development Trends

Agile Project Management with Scrum

, Microsoft Press Books,ISBN978-0-7356-1993-7

Professional Software Development: Shorter Schedules, Higher Quality Products, More Successful Projects, Enhanced Careers

, Addison-Wesley,ISBN978-0-321-19367-4

Scaling Software Agility: Best Practices for Large Enterprises

, Addison-Wesley Professional,ISBN978-0-321-45819-3

Software verification and validation

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We made a master model using stereolithography (SLA), a 3D printing technology; ombined with traditional machining CNC machining.

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Radiator in terminal controller of mobile communication

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Guangzhou Gaojie Mold Design and Manufacturing Co,.Ltd, specializes in the manufacturing of rapid prototyping for more than 15 years.

Since we establish in 2002, Gaojie has worked with more than 10,000 companies such as Zaha Hadid, Honda, China southern airlines and so on.

Gaojie have 100 skilled staff, 10 CNC machines, 3 vacuum casting machines, and 6 3d printing machines. We operate 24-7 to assist customers requiring very tight deadlines.

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Talk about the products:The customer asked to have at least 10 samples to develop. And hes a foreigner from UK in Gaungzhou, who came to our factory to see our machiney and discuss pricing.

3D Printing Market Globally Expected to Drive Growth

Talk about the products:The customer asked to have at least 10 samples to develop. And hes a foreigner from UK in Gaungzhou, who came to our factory to see our machiney and discuss pricing.

CNC machine tools into a smart manufacturing model to be related to software development

With the application of new technology in the manufacturing industry to promote and in-depth, Chinas machinery industry and how to upgrade the transformation of the manufacturing sector is also increasingly fermenting.

Chinas rapid development of casting machine tool industry is still inadequate

Recently the machine tool industry has been rapid development, the core of the CNC machine tools is a good or bad breakthrough.


With over 45 years experience, we have a long and successful history in the prototyping and model making industry.

We combine traditional craft skills with the latest precision technology to bring you the highest quality and exceptional service.

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How did we do? Van Guards MD gives feedback about IDCs design process. See case study & video:

Example Rapid Prototyping in action

Example: Rapid Prototyping in action

From the course:Instructional Design: Models of ID

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Instructional design models are frameworks to help you create quality training. In this course, author and instructional design expert Shea Hanson explores some of the most salient models of instructional design: ADDIE, SAM, Rapid Prototyping, and Gradual Release. Watch scenarios that show how each model performs in action in the workplace, which Shea follows with an examination of its pros and cons. She also provides some helpful resources that will lead to your next step.

Building Content Strategy for Best-in-Class Business Training @ LinkedIn Learning

Shea Hanson creates transformative training courses that help professionals improve their skills.

Shea is the manager of content for business courses at , where she works with expert authors to create engaging, effective training courses. With a background in instructional design, Sheas goal is to help professionals improve their skills and transform their lives through simple and helpful content.

Weve gone over the Rapid Prototyping model, so lets now see how we can use it to create training in the workplace. Well use KinetEco as an example. KinetEco tech support reps answer calls from the installation technicians who are out on jobs. The techs may run into something theyve never seen, or need to get approval to change something about the job. So, they call tech support reps for answers and approval. The tech support reps are getting new computer systems that will help them communicate with the install techs, and track their questions and answers. The instructional design team has been asked to create training for the tech support reps on this new software, and they need the training as soon as possible. The instructional design team will use rapid prototyping to create this training. Lets walk through the process with them. The instructional design team has to roll out this training quickly, across the entire tech support rep team. They split up responsibilities among

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Choosing the best model for your project

3. Rapid Prototyping (Spiral) Model

3. Rapid Prototyping (Spiral) Model

Overview of the Rapid Prototyping model

Example: Rapid Prototyping in action

Overview of the Gradual Release model

Learn the most in-demand business, tech and creative skills from industry experts.

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According to the requirements of the tolerances and the demand,machining is also a solution for low volume demands for these plastic parts,its similar with the process of vacuum casting ,but it help us get a higher tolerance and efficiency,especially for these hard plastics,such as Nylon,POM,acrylic,PP,PVC,etc.

The plastic machined prototoypes in our company are mostly used in the products like cases,panels,etc.Just like the sheet metal products.To get a high strength,usually wed add glass fibers to the Nylon or ABS.Thus,the only way for these parts is machining,its cost saving and flexible in the operation compared to the mold injection,whats more important is that we can make the lead time even just a few days.

Just like the product in the picture,we provide prototoype solutions for the designs through our professional most of the projects,we combine cnc machining and vacuum casting to meet the demands of our customers,prototypes or low volume mpared with the 3D printting,cnc machining is much widely applicated in the varieties of materials manufacturing.The common plastic materials we machining inclusdes ABS,PC,PMMA,POM,PP,PA,PPS,PEEK,Nylon,etc. and also the match finish like Paintting,Silkscreen,Polish,Plating,etc.

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Incoming material will be checked carefully before production.

Located in Xiamen, Fujian, China (Mainland), VOHN manufactures custom parts for clients ranging from government agencies and Fortune 100 companies to inventors, engineers, hobbyists, and students.

To consistently exceed customer expectations, quality control and assurance is achievedthrough

Detailed computer generated traveler tickets

Analysis of root cause of non-conformances

Fully equipped inspection department

Fully equipped inspection department

Periodic calibration and labeling of inspection tools

Comprehensive written procedures and policies

Designated areas for nonconforming parts

Corrective actions to prevent recurrence of non-conformances

Daily backup of electronic records stored in multiple locations

Extensive electronic records of orders, customer communications, and inspection results

Comprehensive software expert system advising customers of manufacturability issues

Staff members being strongly encouraged to suggest improvements in methods, materials, and suppliers

1. How soon can I get the quotation?

A.We will provide ASAP, within 24 hours after receiving your detailed drawing.

A.Usually, we dont set MOQ, but the more, the cheaper. Besides, we are happy to make prototype or sample for clients to ensure quality standard.

3. DO you provide samples? Is it free or extra?

A.It is an honor to provide a sample. Usually, sample fee is two times of batch unit price and it will be returned to mass production.

4. How long is the Delivery for Your Industrial Part?

A.Honestly, it depends on the order quantity. Normally, 7 days to 20 days after your deposit. We will try our best to shorten our lead time according to customers demands.

5. How can you guarantee the quality?

A.Quality is our culture. Quality control department set up control plan before starting the project, and all PPAP report will be provided to the whole process.

1 With plastic bag,with pearl-cotton package.

5 Or according to customers requirement.

10-20 working days after order and deposit received.

Manage the entire production process from start to finish

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Shenzhen KG Model

Rapid Prototyping and Low-Volume Manufacturing

Shenzhen KG Model provides high-quality 3D Printing, CNC Machining, Vacuum Casting and other services.

We manufacture metal and plastic parts for international customers in automotive, medical, consumer, aerospace and other industries. We put together professional team of engineers, technicians and sales managers, who deliver high quality service to our clients.

Rapid prototyping is a group of techniques used to quickly produce a scale model of a physical part or assembly using three-dimensional CAD data. Construction of the part or assembly is usually done using 3D printing or additive manufacturing technology.

Have your low-volume manufacturing parts made fast. We can make up to 500+ parts either one time or on a regular basis. Manufacturing in low volumes is an ideal solution for managing your inventory and testing the market before producing larger quantities.

Check out portfolio of our latest projects

We received your CNC part for the tray. It is perfect! Thank you for your teams great work!

Received the HUB parts this morning. First impressions are that they look very good. Many thanks

Im very pleased with the quality of the work – many thanks

Are You Ready To Start Your Next Project?

When youre ready to discuss your project, send us an enquiry and/or upload your CAD file to get a quote. We are 100% focused on supporting your project with solutions that help get your product to market, fast.

Shenzhen KG Model provides high quality service for various industries including Automotive, Medical equipment,Consumer and Home Appliances, Heavy equipment, Sports equipment, Aerospace/Military

Shenzhen KG Model provides high quality services from rapid prototyping to production of metal and plastic parts.

We have large factory in Shenzhen, China and have broad experience of working with automotive, medical, consumer products / home appliances and other industries.

Head Office address: 713, Jinhao Building, No. 109, Guanshen Road, Fuyong, Baoan District, Shenzhen, China

Factory address: 2F, A1 bldg, Jinyuda Industrial Park, Shajing Town, Baoan District, Shenzhen, China. Zip code 518104