ProJet 7000 HD (2016) Stereo Lithography Build Envelope Capacity inches (mm

ProJet 7000 HD (2016) Stereo Lithography Build Envelope Capacity inches (mm

Build Envelope Capacity inches (mm) 15x15x10 (380x380x250)

Accuracy 0.1-0.2% with 50 m minimum

Laser Spot Size in (mm) 0.00025 (0.00635)

The ProJet 7000 uses stereolithography technology to create accurate and perfectly formed 3D printed parts and prototypes. The ProJet 7000 is available in 3 models, SD, HD and MP, with the largest build platform delivering 15 x 15 x 10 inches (380 x 380 x 250 mm) of available build space. Used by aerospace, automotive, heavy equipment, consumer product and industrial designers, with the ProJet 7000 MP being particularly popular with medical device manufacturers, these systems offer a wide range of material choices. Materials closely match that of their traditional alternatives with ABS-like properties with the VisiJet SL Black, resistance to temperatures as high as 130oC with the VisiJet SL HiTemp, and materials that allow direct creation of casting patterns for foundries and investment casting facilities. VisiJet SL Clear is also USP Class VI certified, making it ideal for medical product manufacturing, especially in mass custom manufacturing. These printers delivery an accuracy of 0.001 – 0.002 inch per inch of part dimension and very fast printing speeds. Each printer is delivered with the 3D Manage software that enables easy build job setup, build optimization tools, parts stacking and nesting, and job monitoring. Features / Benefits • Large build size of up to 15 x 15 x 10 inches (380 x 380 x 250 mm) • Wide choice of materials • USP Class VI certified material available • Accuracy of up to 0.001 inches per inch of part dimension • Super-fast stereolithography technology • Fast and accurate, ideal for mass custom manufacturing • USP CLass VI certified material available • 3D Manage software provided

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The History of Stereolithography (SLA

Within the field of rapid prototyping there are a variety of ways in which to create a product. From Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), to Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), to Casting, there are options when it comes to producing a 3D rapid prototyped product from scratch. We provide three types of rapid prototype printing, which are FDM, Polyjet, and Stereolithography (SLA). In this article we want to look at the history of the SLA method of rapid prototyping as well as its pros and cons.

On March 11, 1986, a man by the name of Charles (Chuck) W. Hull patented the method of stereolithography. He also coined the name in his U.S. Patent 4,575,330, entitled Apparatus for Production of Three-Dimensional Objects by Stereolithography. Chuck defined stereolithography as the method of making solid objects by successively laying down thin layers of ultraviolet curable material one layer at a time through the use of the apparatus.

In this patent an ultraviolet light was concentrated on specific areas of a vat filled with liquid photopolymer. Through the concentration of this UV light, which was controlled by a computer that was following the preloaded CAD file, it hardened the curable material one layer at a time. Once the UV light is focused on the space the photopolymer polymerizes/crosslinks and is changed in a solid.

It was in 1986 that Hall founded 3D System Inc. which was the first company to generalize dn commercialize this procedure.

Stereolothography is a form of additive manufacturing. As mentioned earlier, a UV light is concentrated on a particular area of a vat of photopolymer resin and the object is built one layer at a time.

The SLA is placed on a elevator that is controllable up to 0.05mm at a time. After the pattern is traced the SLAs elevator lowers by one level in order to allow for another layer of resin to be laid. Once the stage is done, it happens all over again, re-coating the object with fresh material and joining the subsequent layers together.

Once each layer has been exposed to the UV light, the final design is immersed in a chemical bath in order to rid the design of excess resin. The design is alsu cured in a UV oven.

This form of additive manufacturing is particularly speedy, making it extremely beneficial. There are a variety of sizes that can be made as well, depending on the size of the SLA machine. These prototypes can form the master patterns for injection molding, thermoforming, blow molding and a variety of metal casting processes.

That concludes the history of stereolithography, as well as what we hope to be a variety of helpful bits of information about this unique form of rapid prototyping.

stereolithography machine

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How Stereolithography (SLA

Featuring some of the most advanced additive technologies available, machines from Arcam EBM and Concept Laser enable customers to grow products quickly and precisely. And since theyre capable of achieving high levels of accuracy, even on intricate shapes and geometries, these machines open up new design possibilities across a multitude of applications.

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Stereolithography (SLA) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process that creates three-dimensional objects from liquid resins. When Charles Hull patented the process in 1984, he coined the term stereolithography. SLA is now one of the most popular rapid-prototyping technologies in the family of AM processes.

Most AM systems require that build material is liquefied, deposited in an ultrathin layer and solidified. With SLA, changes in material state are reversed a liquid becomes a solid. To accomplish this, SLA depends on the process of photopolymerization. Light from an ultraviolet (UV) laser causes cross-linking the bonding of one polymer chain to another, which hardens the polymer.

First, it is necessary to prepare a CAD file that defines the parameters of a three-dimensional object. Next, CAD data is used to prepare an STL file which slices the digital representation of the object into multiple cross-sections.

This information directs the stereolithography apparatus to create the desired 3-D object. The apparatus consists of a tank filled with liquid photopolymer, a perforated print bed, an ultraviolet laser and an STL file to direct the movement of both the laser and the print bed. The use of a tank filled with a liquid photopolymer led to the adoption of the term vat photopolymerization to describe the process.

As the UV laser selectively strikes thin cross-sections of liquid resin, they are cured or hardened in milliseconds. The laser is positioned either above or below the vat of resin. Shrinkage is managed because any heat generated dissipates in the bath of liquid resin. The print bed is lowered incrementally to progressively print successive layers from the bottom up. Adjacent layers instantly bond during the curing process.

When the process is complete, the operator lowers the vat of liquid resin to expose the object. Isopropyl alcohol is often used to remove residual liquid resin from the object. It is possible to perform additional curing in an ultraviolet oven to further harden the object.

Model geometries determine whether support structures are required during printing. Since the SLA process utilizes only one type of resin at a time, support structures are made from the same material used to create the desired object. Therefore, supports cannot be dissolved away; they must be removed mechanically. Specialized software calculates the number and placement of supports. In post-processing, supports are broken away or removed with pliers. To facilitate removal, the rib-like supports have small tips that minimize contact with the object.

Points of contact between the object and the supports are often wet-sanded, which also prepares the object for priming and painting when desired. A clear UV acrylic may be applied to hard plastic parts.

One big advantage of stereolithography is the wide variety of liquid photopolymers compatible with the process. The different resins used in stereolithography yield plastics varying in pliability, hardness and toughness.

Durable resins produce wear-resistant ball joints, snap-fits and impact-resistant cases. Tougher resins that emulate the properties of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) are used for more rugged prototypes.

Castable resins produce finely detailed objects, allowing jewelers to proceed directly from digital files to a 3-D object ready for investment casting. The SLA process offers qualities that jewelers value, including smooth surfaces and highly accurate prong placement.

High temperature resins endure hot fluid and air flows, making them a good choice for heat-resistant fixtures and mold prototypes. Flexible resins simulate the performance of soft rubber, making it an appropriate selection for the production of grips, handles and parts designed to cushion impact. Flexible resins are also used to add soft-touch ergonomic functionality to certain products.

Since the SLA process can be used to create high-resolution objects with smooth surfaces, it is implemented to fabricate metal-plated prototypes that can replace more cumbersome sheet metal prototypes. It is also used to print models for displays and demonstrations. SLA systems produce investment casting patterns and vacuum casting masters. Some resins result in rigid, functional prototypes for manufacturing, while others are perfect for the creation of visual prototypes used in market research and photography shoots.

Stereolithography is increasingly used to fabricate biocompatible objects for dental applications. Biocompatible transparent resins are ideal for printing long-lasting orthodontic appliances like retainers. Other resins are used to print dentures and models of crowns and bridges.

SLA medical modeling systems produce medical prototypes and anatomical models. For example, researchers at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center studied the viability of SLA for rapid prototyping related to head and neck reconstruction. The study, Accuracy of Rapid Prototype Models for Head and Neck Reconstruction, related to the use of SLA models in the development of highly specialized prostheses. Another study at Walter Reed looked at the use of anatomical models fabricated through stereolithography.

Other potential applications for the SLA process continue to emerge. For example, it is possible to suspend ceramic microparticles in a photopolymer resin to build ceramic objects. In post-processing, firing in a programmable kiln cures and hardens the ceramic object. When desired, glazing completes the fabrication process.

The stereolithography process can produce highly detailed, durable objects with smooth surfaces. Intricate structures and smooth surfaces are possible in part because of the 20-50 micron resolutions realizable with typical SLA systems.

In general, the process is ideal for the production of low-volume parts and prototypes with complex geometries. Accurate, repeatable production of end-use parts is yet another advantage. The use of UV-resistant durable resins can extend the lifespan of SLA parts subject to sunlight or other UV light sources.< /p>

Stereolithography differs from most AM processes in that it can be used to produce transparent objects, a real advantage in rapid prototyping of optical items and headlight covers. Transparency is also a plus in the production of dental appliances, anatomical models and architectural models. In post-processing, fine sanding, polishing and clear coating optimize transparency.

Rapid prototyping is a key advantage of stereolithography. In fact, SLA is one of the most popular AM processes for quick and efficient prototyping. Traditionally, the prototyping process is dependent on repetitive design modifications following frequent retesting.

In this kind of design environment, the inherent efficiency of the SLA process significantly reduces lead times. With lead times measured in hours or days, stereolithography is highly conducive to prototype development. Although fused deposition modeling (FDM) is popular for cost-effective prototyping, SLA is the preferred prototyping method when fine detail and smooth surfaces are desired.

Since the SLA process inherently minimizes resin shrinkage, parts and prototypes exhibit good dimensional accuracy. Careful control of light intensity, exposure time and layer thickness further manages shrinkage. It is also possible to usemathematical modelsto account for anticipated shrinkage.

Todays SLA systems do more than produce finely detailed objects. As the technology has evolved, machines have increased in size. It is now possible to print 3-D parts up to three meters long, for example, engine block models.

Although stereolithography is among the most mature of the seven major AM processes, it remains one of the most popular for modeling, rapid prototyping of high-resolution objects and the production of customized plastic parts.

Rapid Prototyping with Stereolithography

Stereolithography, or SL, emerged in the mid-1980s and established itself as a staple of additive manufacturing (AM) over the next decade. Since that time, SLs ability to quickly and accurately create complex prototypes has helped transform the design world like never before.

As with other AM processes like selective laser sintering (SLS) and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), SL relies on lasers to do the heavy lifting. Parts are built by curing paper-thin layers of liquid thermoset resin, using an ultraviolet (UV) laser that draws on the surface of a resin turning it from a liquid into a solid layer. As each layer is completed, fresh, uncured resin is swept over the preceding layer and the process repeated until the part is finished. A post-build process is required on SL parts, which undergo a UV-curing cycle to fully solidify the outer surface of the part and any additional surface finish requirements.

Unlike older generations of SL, todays machines offer a range of thermoplastic-mimic materials to choose from, with several flavors to mimic polypropylene, ABS, and glass-filled polycarbonate available. Proto Labs offers many variations of these materials:

A flexible, durable resin that mimics a stiff polypropylene. It can withstand harsh mechanical treatment and is great for fine detailssharp corners, thin walls, small holes, etc.

Strong, white plastic similar to a CNCmachined polypropylene/ABS blend. It works well for snap fits, assemblies, and demanding applications.

Variations of ABS mimics include a clear, low-viscosity resin that can be finished clear; an opaque black plastic that blocks nearly all visible light, even in thin sections; a clear, colorless, water-resistant plastic good for lenses and flow-visualization models; and a green micro-resolution resin that enables production of parts with extremely fine features and tight tolerances.

A ceramic-filled PC material that provides strength, stiffness, and temperature resistance, but can be brittle.

A nickel-plated material that gives SL-generated parts much of the strength and toughness associated with die cast aluminum.

Please note the term thermoplastic mimic. This is an important distinction in that the mechanical properties of SL materials only mimic those of their molded counterpart. If you need to pound on your prototype with a sledgehammer, or leave it in the sun for a few months, be aware that SL parts do not provide the same strength and durability as parts that are sintered, cast, machined, or molded. This makes SL the logical choice for prototype parts where validation of form and fitbut not necessarily functionis the most important factor. Customer service engineers at Proto Labs can help guide you during material and manufacturing process selection if help is needed.

Despite differences in material properties, SL is the clear winner over SLS in terms of part accuracy and surface finish. Normal, high, and micro resolutions are available, providing layer thicknesses ranging from 0.004 to 0.001 in. and part features as small as 0.002 in. This means very fine details and cosmetic surfaces are possible, with minimal stair stepping compared to printed parts built by processes like fused deposition modeling (FDM).

SL also has the edge in part sizeneed a prototype of a new luggage casing, or a lawnmower shell? Theres a good chance SL can accommodate. Proto Labs current max build size is 29 in. by 25 in. by 21 in. (736mm by 635mm by 533mm).

SL is also an excellent choice for prototyping microfluidic devices. Our microfluidic fabrication process allows engineers to accurately test parts that will later be injection molded, avoiding the hassles and high cost of photolithography. If youre designing a protein sensor, micro-pump, or lab on a chip, for example, SL prototyping might be just the ticket.

Stay away from extremely small holes as well, since the relatively high viscosity of the photo-curable resin used with SL can pose challenges during the post-build process. If youre inventing a newfangled angel hair pasta strainer, one with holes smaller than 0.005 in., SL is probably not the best choice for a prototype. Thin walls should be monitored as well. The lid for a hi-tech sandwich container, for example, should have walls no less than 0.030 in. to 0.040 in. thick.

Bear in mind that we may create temporary structures to support your part during the build process, but these are removed prior to delivery and typically little evidence of their existence is found. We may also choose to orient the workpiece to facilitate a better build, in which case the cosmetic appearance of some surfaces can be affectedif certain cosmetic features on your part require an elevated level of surface finish, please indicate those surfaces when submitting your design.

Speaking of smooth surfaces, Proto Labs offers plenty of options for finishing SL parts. Most customers opt for light sanding to remove the aforementioned nibs left from supports, followed by a fine bead blast. Parts can be shipped as is and will show some evidence of the support structures. There are also several coating choices availableaside from the nickel SLArmor, painting (with color matching and masking services available), clear coat, texturing, and even custom decals are also possible.

As for preferred 3D CAD file formats for SL, Proto Labs accepts STL files. Most commercial CAD systems can generate STL files, the native format of any SL machine, but if yours doesnt have this capability, our advice is to submit a neutral file formatsuch as an IGES or STEP file. But steer clear of the freeware STL generators littering the internet. Some tend to create incomplete STL files, meaning additional rework time and delayed production.

SL plays an important step in the design process. It bridges the gap between digital models and machined or injection molded parts, giving people the ability to touch and feel prototype designs within days. Costly mistakes can be avoided, development costs reduced, and better products built in the long run.

Check to learn more about stereolithography and thekey design guidelinesfor building better SL parts.

Proto Labs, Inc., 5540 Pioneer Creek Dr. Maple Plain, MN 55359 USA 877.479.3680

Proto Labs, Inc. is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer

Stereolithography Materials

Look to SL for excellent dimensional tolerances, smooth surfaces and fine feature details. Mimic properties of ABS, polycarbonate and polypropylene in layers as low as 0.002.

4th generation composite filled material for highest rigidity and heat deflection temperature. Great for static testing in under-hood and wind tunnel applications.

Somos® WaterClear Ultra 10122DATASHEET

Antimony free formulation for investment casting patterns only. For use when casting reactive metal alloys where antimony may contaminate the cast metallurgical properties.

Properties listed are with UV postcure. Higher properties can be achieved with thermal postcure; see material datasheet for more information.

Stereolithography (SLA) Prototypes in

Welcome to the premier industrial source for Stereolithography (SLA) Prototypes in California – Southern. These companies offer a comprehensive range of Stereolithography (SLA) Prototypes, as well as a variety of related products and services. provides numerous search tools, including location, certification and keyword filters, to help you refine your results. Click on company profile for additional company and contact information.HomeSupplier DiscoveryStereolithography (SLA) Prototypes Suppliers serving Southern California

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Quality Certifications are issued to suppliers by an accredited third party, verifying that the supplier complies with established quality standards.

Quality standards are usually documents written by developing bodies such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) or trade organizations such as the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). Quality standards are used to compare an organization to what the authorities say are best practices for a quality management system. Quality standards can either be written in terms general enough to be used across any industry or written with requirements for a specific industry. Industry specific quality standards may be written with the help of experts in that industry.

Learn more on our Certification Glossary

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Stereolithography (SLA) Prototypes Suppliers serving Southern California

Locations Served: California – South

Custom prototyping with stereolithography. Materials include Somos® PerFORM, Somos ProtoGen 18420, Somos WaterClear Ultra 10122, Somos NeXt, SC 1000P and Somos Element. Produces realistic models ideal for fit testing, marketing use and visual assessment. Also provides ID-Light technology for ultra light weight parts. Serves the aerospace, consumer product, transportation, medical, and energy industries.

Custom manufacturer offering precision stereolithography (SLA) and FRSLA prototypes. Capable of processing small sizes and fine detail applications. Materials worked with include resins, photopolymer, polycarbonate, and thermoplastics with various features and specifications such as 2 MPA to 68 MPA tensile strength and 5 percent to 47 percent elongation at break. Industries served include medical, electronic, automotive, aerospace, and consumer products. Plating services is also available.

Stereolithography (SLA) Prototypes Capabilities

3D Printing and Rapid Prototyping Services


ISO 9001:2008 certified. Custom manufacturer of stereolithography (SLA) prototypes. Specifications include layer thickness ranging from 0.004 to 0.006 in. with standard accuracy up to +/-0.007 in. Used for metal clad, presentation, anatomical, and architectural models. Serves aircraft and aerospace, medical, military, and design industries. In-house design and short run production offered. ITAR registered. REACH and RoHS compliant.

ISO 9001:2008 certified & lean manufacturing. Custom manufacturer of flexible stereolithography (SLA) prototypes. Variety of resins used ranging in rigidity, detail, color, clarity & temperature tolerance. Capable of light-duty function & service as short-run low-temperature tooling. Stereolithography (SLA) prototypes can be sanded, primed, painted & plated for presentation, demonstration & photo reproduction. ITAR compliant.

Stereolithography (SLA) Prototypes Capabilities


Custom plastic thermoformer & injection molder to include 5 axis CNC routing with full cad-cam support, injection molding & a complete tooling shop. Specializing in prototyping & product development that can be injection molded & available in stereolithography prototypes. Prototypes are available in plastic materials including acrylic, nylon & polystyrene.

Stereolithography (SLA) prototypes. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) tool prototypes are also available. Capabilities include hot isostatic pressing, milling, blending, machining, filling, welding, lathe work, inspection, outgassing and forming. Design, assembly, testing, laboratory, analytical, mass spectrometry and reverse engineering services are available. Materials used include nickel and iron base super alloys, titanium and cobalt base alloys, nickel aluminum, chromium and titanium aluminum base compositions, duplex, soft magnetic and stainless steels, copper and precious and refractory metals.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about a printing method. For rock types, seeLithology. For the microfabrication process, seePhotolithography.

(1903), with the range of tones fading toward the edges

Lithography(from, lithos, meaning stone, andά, grphein, meaning to write) is a method ofprintingoriginally based on theimmiscibilityof oil and water.[1]The printing is from a stone (lithographic limestone) or a metal plate with a ball grained surface. It was invented in 1796 by German author and actorAlois Senefelderas a cheap method of publishing theatrical works.[2][3]Lithography can be used to print text orartworkonto paper or other suitable material.[4]

Lithography originally used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, levellithographic limestoneplate. The stone was treated with a mixture of acid andgum arabicetchingthe grease content of the drawing material into the pores of the stone and chemically creating grease reservoirs. The open stone (without drawing) was affected by the gum arabic creating a thin gum layer that would then attract water. When the stone was subsequently moistened, these gummed areas retained water; anoil-based inkcould then be applied with a roller sticking only to the original drawing. The ink would finally be transferred to a cotton fine artpapersheet, producing aprinted page. This traditional technique is still used as afine artmedium today.

In modern lithography, the image is made of apolymercoating applied to a flexible plastic or metal plate.[5]The image can be printed directly from the plate (the orientation of the image is reversed), or it can beoffset, by transferring the image onto a flexible sheet (rubber) for printing and publication.

As a printing technology, lithography is different fromintaglio printing(gravure), wherein a plate is eitherengravedetched, orstippledto score cavities to contain the printing ink; andwoodblock printingorletterpressprinting, wherein ink is applied to the raised surfaces of letters or images. Today, most types of high-volume books and magazines, especially when illustrated in colour, are printed withoffset lithography, which has become the most common form of printing technology since the 1960s.

The related termphotolithographyrefers to when photographic images are used in lithographic printing, whether these images are printed directly from a stone or from a metal plate, as in offset printing. Photolithography is used synonymously with offset printing. The technique as well as the term were introduced in Europe in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the fabrication andmass productionofintegrated circuitsin themicroelectronicsindustry.[6][7]

Lithography uses simple chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the positive part of an image is a water-repelling (hydrophobic) substance, while the negative image would be water-retaining (hydrophilic). Thus, when the plate is introduced to a compatible printing ink and water mixture, the ink will adhere to the positive image after it is etched with a mixture of gum arabic and acid then subsequently replaced withasphaltumstabilizing the drawing. This allows a flat print plate or stone to be used, enabling much longer and more detailed print runs than the older physical methods of printing (e.g.,intaglio printingletterpress printing).

Lithography was invented byAlois Senefelderin theKingdom of Bavariain 1796. In the early days of lithography, and much like fine art lithography today, a smooth piece oflimestonewas used. After the oil-based image was put on the surface, a solution ofgum arabicin water was applied, the gum sticking only to the non-oily surface. During printing, water adhered to the gum arabic surfaces and was repelled by the oily parts, while the oily ink used for printing did the opposite.

Lithography works because of the mutualrepulsion of oil and water. The image is drawn on the surface of the print plate with a fat or oil-based medium (hydrophobic) such as a wax crayon, which may be pigmented to make the drawing visible. A wide range of oil-based media is available, but the durability of the image on the stone depends on thelipidcontent of the material being used, and its ability to withstand water and acid. After the drawing of the image, an aqueoussolutionofgum arabic, weakly acidified with nitric acidHNO

3is applied to the stone. The function of this solution is to create a hydrophilic layer ofcalcium nitratesalt,Ca(NO

2, and gum arabic on all non-image surfaces. The gum solution penetrates into the pores of the stone, completely surrounding the original image with a hydrophilic layer that will not accept the printing ink. Using lithographicturpentine, the printer then removes any excess of the greasy drawing material, but a hydrophobic molecular film of it remains tightly bonded to the surface of the stone, rejecting the gum arabic and water, but ready to accept the oily ink.[8]

[9]When printing, the stone is kept wet with water. Naturally the water is attracted to the layer of gum and salt created by the acid wash.Printing inkbased on drying oils such aslinseed oiland varnish loaded withpigmentis then rolled over the surface. The water repels the greasy ink but the hydrophobic areas left by the original drawing material accept it. When the hydrophobic image is loaded with ink, the stone and paper are run through a press that applies even pressure over the surface, transferring the ink to the paper and off the stone.

Senefelder had experimented during the early 19th century with multicolor lithography; in his 1819 book, he predicted that the process would eventually be perfected and used to reproduce paintings.[2]Multi-color printing was introduced by a new process developed byGodefroy Engelmann(France) in 1837 known aschromolithography.[2]A separate stone was used for each color, and a print went through the press separately for each stone. The main challenge was to keep the images aligned (in register). This method lent itself to images consisting of large areas of flat color, and resulted in the characteristic poster designs of this period.

Lithography, or printing from soft stone, largely took the place of engraving in the production of English commercial maps after about 1852. It was a quick, cheap process and had been used to print British army maps during thePeninsula War. Most of the commercial maps of the second half of the 19th century were lithographed and unattractive, though accurate enough.[10]

High-volume lithography is used presently to produce posters, maps, books, newspapers, and packagingjust about any smooth, mass-produced item with print and graphics on it. Most books, indeed all types of high-volume text, are now printed usingoffset lithography.

For offset lithography, which depends on photographic processes, flexible aluminum, polyester, mylar or paper printing plates are used instead of stone tablets. Modern printing plates have a brushed or roughened texture and are covered with a photosensitiveemulsion. A photographic negative of the desired image is placed in contact with the emulsion and the plate is exposed to ultraviolet light. After development, the emulsion shows a reverse of the negative image, which is thus a duplicate of the original (positive) image. The image on the plate emulsion can also be created by direct laser imaging in a CTP (Computer-To-Plate) device known as a platesetter. The positive image is the emulsion that remains after imaging. Non-image portions of the emulsion have traditionally been removed by a chemical process, though in recent times plates have come available that do not require such processing.

The plate is affixed to a cylinder on a printing press. Dampening rollers apply water, which covers the blank portions of the plate but is repelled by the emulsion of the image area. Hydrophobic ink, which is repelled by the water and only adheres to the emulsion of the image area, is then applied by the inking roll

If this image were transferred directly to paper, it would create a mirror-type image and the paper would become too wet. Instead, the plate rolls against a cylinder covered with a rubberblanket, which squeezes away the water, picks up the ink and transfers it to the paper with uniform pressure. The paper passes between the blanket cylinder and a counter-pressure or impression cylinder and the image is transferred to the paper. Because the image is first transferred, oroffsetto the rubber blanket cylinder, this reproduction method is known asoffset lithographyoroffset printing.[11]

Many innovations and technical refinements have been made in printing processes and presses over the years, including the development ofpresseswith multiple units (each containing one printing plate) that can print multi-color images in one pass on both sides of the sheet, and presses that accommodate continuous rolls (webs) of paper, known as web presses. Another innovation was the continuous dampening system first introduced by Dahlgren instead of the old method which is still used on older presses (conventional dampening), which are rollers covered with molleton (cloth) that absorbs the water. This increased control of the water flow to the plate and allowed for better ink and water balance. Current dampening systems include a delta effect or vario, which slows the roller in contact with the plate, thus creating a sweeping movement over the ink image to clean impurities known as hickies.

The process of lithography printing is illustrated bythis simplified diagram. This press is also called an ink pyramid because the ink is transferred through several layers of rollers with different purposes. Fast lithographic web printing presses are commonly used in newspaper production.

The advent ofdesktop publishingmade it possible for type and images to be modified easily on personal computers for eventual printing by desktop or commercial presses. The development of digitalimagesettersenabled print shops to produce negatives for platemaking directly from digital input, skipping the intermediate step of photographing an actual page layout. The development of the digitalplatesetterduring the late 20th century eliminated film negatives altogether by exposing printing plates directly from digital input, a process known ascomputer to plateprinting.

Microlithography andnanolithographyrefer specifically to lithographic patterning methods capable of structuring material on a fine scale. Typically, features smaller than 10micrometersare considered microlithographic, and features smaller than 100nanometersare considered nanolithographic.Photolithographyis one of these methods, often applied tosemiconductormanufacturing ofmicrochips. Photolithography is also commonly used for fabricatingMicroelectromechanical systems(MEMS) devices. Photolithography generally uses a pre-fabricatedphotomaskor reticle as a master from which the final pattern is derived.

Although photolithographic technology is the most commercially advanced form of nanolithography, other techniques are also used. Some, for exampleelectron beam lithography, are capable of much greater patterning resolution (sometimes as small as a few nanometers). Electron beam lithography is also important commercially, primarily for its use in the manufacture of photomasks. Electron beam lithography as it is usually practiced is a form ofmaskless lithography, in that a mask is not required to generate the final pattern. Instead, the final pattern is created directly from a digital representation on a computer, by controlling an electron beam as it scans across aresist-coated substrate. Electron beam lithography has the disadvantage of being much slower than photolithography.

In addition to these commercially well-established techniques, a large number of promising microlithographic andnanolithographictechnologies exist or are being developed, includingnanoimprint lithographyinterference lithographyX-ray lithographyextreme ultraviolet lithographymagnetolithographyandscanning probe lithography. Some of these new techniques have been used successfully for small-scale commercial and important research applications. Surface-charge lithography, in factPlasma desorption mass spectrometrycan be directly patterned on polar dielectric crystals via pyroelectric effect,[12]Diffraction lithography.[13]

During the first years of the 19th century, lithography had only a limited effect onprintmaking, mainly because technical difficulties remained to be overcome. Germany was the main center of production in this period.Godefroy Engelmann, who moved his press fromMulhouseto Paris in 1816, largely succeeded in resolving the technical problems, and during the 1820s lithography was adopted by artists such asDelacroixandGricault. London also became a center, and some of Gricaults prints were in fact produced there.Goyain Bordeaux produced his last series of prints by lithographyThe Bulls of Bordeauxof 1828. By the mid-century the initial enthusiasm had somewhat diminished in both countries, although the use of lithography was increasingly favored for commercial applications, which included the prints ofDaumier, published in newspapers.Rodolphe BresdinandJean-François Milletalso continued to practice the medium in France, andAdolf Menzelin Germany. In 1862 the publisher Cadart tried to initiate a portfolio of lithographs by various artists, which was not successful but included several prints byManet. The revival began during the 1870s, especially in France with artists such asOdilon RedonHenri Fantin-LatourandDegasproducing much of their work in this manner. The need for strictly limitededitionsto maintain the price had now been realized, and the medium became more accepted.

In the 1890s, color lithography gained success in part by the emergence ofJules Chret, known as thefather of the modern poster, whose work went on to inspire a new generation of poster designers and painters, most notablyToulouse-Lautrec, and former student of Chret,Georges de Feure. By 1900 the medium in both color and monotone was an accepted part of printmaking.

During the 20th century, a group of artists, includingBraqueCalderChagallDufyLgerMatisseMir, andPicasso, rediscovered the largely undeveloped artform of lithography thanks to theMourlot Studios, also known asAtelier Mourlot, a Parisian printshop founded in 1852 by the Mourlot family. The Atelier Mourlot originally specialized in the printing of wallpaper; but it was transformed when the founders grandson,Fernand Mourlot, invited a number of 20th-century artists to explore the complexities of fine art printing. Mourlot encouraged the painters to work directly on lithographic stones in order to create original artworks that could then be executed under the direction of master printers in small editions. The combination of modern artist and master printer resulted in lithographs that were used as posters to promote the artists work.[14][15]

Grant WoodGeorge BellowsAlphonse MuchaMax KahnPablo PicassoEleanor CoenJasper JohnsDavid HockneySusan Dorothea WhiteandRobert Rauschenbergare a few of the artists who have produced most of their prints in the medium.M. C. Escheris considered a master of lithography, and many of his prints were created using this process. More than other printmaking techniques,printmakersin lithography still largely depend on access to goodprinters, and the development of the medium has been greatly influenced by when and where these have been established.

As a special form of lithography, the serilith process is sometimes used. Seriliths are mixed media original prints created in a process in which an artist uses thelithographandserigraphprocesses. The separations for both processes are hand-drawn by the artist. The serilith technique is used primarily to create fine art limited print editions.[16]

Washingtons Residence, High Street, Philadelphia, 1830 lithograph byWilliam L. Breton.

H! La chian….. li….li….li….. [Its a blood…dy…dy…dy… mess], lithograph ofLouis-Philippe of FrancebyHonor Daumier, 18

ButterfliesfromAdalbert Seitzs Macrolepidoptera of the World (1923).

An 1836 lithograph of Mexican women makingtortillasbyCarl Nebel.

An example of a 19th-century lithograph depicting royalAfghansoldiers of theDurrani EmpireinAfghanistan. (1847)

Queen Victoria visits theHMSResolutein a lithograph by George Zobel afterWilliam Simpson(1859)

Alfred Concanens 1867 design forChampagne Charlie

At Eternitys Gate, 1882 lithograph byVincent van Gogh.

Sea anemones fromErnst HaeckelsKunstformen der Natur(Artforms of Nature), 1904.

In the Park, LightGeorge Bellows1916

Palace of São Cristvão, the former residence of theEmperors of Brazil, 19th century lithograph byJean-Baptiste Debret.

Lithography using MeV ions Proton beam writing

Theodore Regensteinerinventor of the four-color lithographic press

Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. (1998) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p 146ISBN0-471-29198-6

Carter, Rob, Ben Day, Philip Meggs. Typographic Design: Form and Communication, Third Edition. (2002) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p 11

. London: T. Fisher Unwin Publisher.

Encyclopedia of nineteenth-century photography: A-I, index, Volume 1.

Taylor & Francis (2008).ISBN52. page 865.

Classical Optics and Its Applications

. Cambridge University Press (2002)ISBN98. page 416

A. B. Hoen, Discussion of the Requisite Qualities of Lithographic Limestone, with Report on Tests of the Lithographic Stone of Mitchell County, Iowa,Iowa Geological Survey Annual Report, 1902, Des Moines, 1903; pages 339352.

How to Identify Prints: a complete guide to manual and mechanical processes from woodcut to ink jet

. Spain: Thames and Hudson. p.1c.

Lynam, Edward. 1944. British Maps and Map Makers. London: W. Collins. Page 46.

Grilli, S.; Vespini, V.; Ferraro, P. (2008). Surface-charge lithography for direct pdms micro-patterning.

: 1326213265.doi10.1021/la803046jPMID18986187.

Paturzo, M.; Grilli, S.; Mailis, S.; Coppola, G.; Iodice, M.; Gioffr, M.; Ferraro, P. (2008). Flexible coherent diffraction lithography by tunable phase arrays in lithium niobate crystals.

: 19501953.doi10.1016/j.optcom.2007.12.056.

July 23, 2012, at theWayback Machine.

Wellfleet Press: Secaucus, New Jersey, 1989

Wikimedia Commons has media related to

. Pinner, Middlesex:Private Libraries Association, 1990

Lithography and other printmaking definitions

Museum of Modern Art information on printing techniques and examples of prints

The Invention of Lithography, Aloys Senefelder, (Eng. trans. 1911)

(a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries;DjVuandlayered PDFformat)

Extensive information on Honor Daumier and his life and work, including his entire output of lithographs

Digital work catalog to 4000 lithographs and 1000 wood engravings

Detailed examination of the processes involved in the creation of a typical scholarly lithographic illustration in the 19th century

lithographs at the Davison Art Center, Wesleyan University

A brief historic overview of Lithography. University of Delaware Library. Includes citations for 19th century books using early lithographic illustrations.

Philadelphia on Stone: The First Fifty Years of Commercial Lithography in Philadelphia. Library Company of Philadelphia. Provides an historic overview of the commercial trade in Philadelphia and links to a biographical dictionary of over 500 Philadelphia lithographers and catalog of more than 1300 lithographs documenting Philadelphia.

Prints & People: A Social History of Printed Pictures, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on lithography

Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers

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