IP Lessons from NewPro 3Ds 3D Printing Spat with Nexa3D

IP Lessons from NewPro 3Ds 3D Printing Spat with Nexa3D

Polyga meets prosumer demand with new line of HDI Compact 3D scanners

Kodak and Twindom launch 3D scanning booth at CES 2018

SHINING 3D unveils EinScan Discovery and HD Prime Packs at CES 2018

Vulcain 2.1 test fired, 3D printed rocket engine parts to lift off in 2020

$2.9M 3D printing contract recharges U.S. Air Force legacy planes

Interview: Rocket Lab reaches orbit for first time, announces new advance for 3D printing powered mission

3D Printing News Sliced, Boeing, Renishaw, Norsk Titanium and Digital Metal

7 billion Melrose takeover bid sends GKN share price soaring, metal powder business in cross-hairs

Danish Technological Institute to open $14.5 million 3D printing facility

Manufacturing Technologies Association supports UK Year of Engineering

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Imperial 3D printing report calls for bridge between science and engineering

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IP Lessons from NewPro 3Ds 3D Printing Spat with Nexa3D

Therecently reported patent spatbetween two 3D printing startups offers some insight for businesses about IP rights. The spat involves a fairly common business disagreement: who owns a patent on technology that both companies use?

One player isNewPro 3D, a company headquartered in Vancouver that makes 3D printers using vat photopolymerization, also known as stereolithography or DLP, depending on the light source implemented. NewPro 3D was a stealthy company and hadnt appeared in the 3D printing news until November 2015,when Nexa3D launched a Kickstarter campaign.

Nexa3Dis an Italian company with its own vat photopolymerization machine.Nexa3Ds Kickstarter campaignclaimed one of the fastest printers in the world at 1 cm/min, and more importantly, using patented technology.

The patented technology claim struck a nerve with NewPro 3Ds Diego Castanon. In late November, Diego took to Kickstarters message boards to explain that Nexa3D did not, and could not, have a patent on the technology because NewPro 3D invented the technology and filed for a U.S. patent in April 2015. Castanon also said that Nexa3D filed a European patent application in October, 2015 using NewPro 3Ds own description and drawings. Interestingly, Castanon provided the cover sheet of his own companys patent application to , to show that his application dated back to April 2015.

Heres the rub. Internationally-filed patent applications are not published for 18 months. This appears to be the case here, since we cannot find either application using online patent searches, and were told that the patents were only filed in April and October of last year. This begs the question, how would NewPro 3D know the content of Nexa3Ds patent application? We dont know.

In any case, Diegos posts were correct when he asserted that a patent application is not a patent, and that without a granted patent, Nexa3D would not be able to prevent other companies from manufacturing its 3D printers. But even if NewPro 3D obtains a patent on the technology, it is possible in patent law that Nexa3D may be able to obtain its own patent on the same technology. For example, the U.S. Patent Office or a foreign patent office may not have known about NewPro 3Ds technology, and inadvertently granted Nexa3Ds patent application. The two patents could also claim different aspects of the same or similar technology. In fact, this happens often.

So what can we learn from this? For starters, international patent applications are typically not published for 18 months. Although prior art searches may be performed by patent attorneys and agents prior to filing a patent, the searches do not, and cannot, find all potential prior art that can be used to prevent a patent from being granted.

Also, simply because one company has a patent on a technology doesnt mean that another company doesnt have a patent on the same technology. The claims of each patent may cover different aspects of the technology, or claims on the same technology may have been inadvertently allowed by the patent office.

What may be most important here is companies need to know the implications of accusing another company of patent infringement. In the United States, such an accusation can result in the accused company filing what is called a declaratory judgment action. A DJ action can be filed by a potential infringer against a patent holder in an attempt to obtain a judgment declaring that the patent is invalid or that the potential infringers product does not infringe the patent. By simply accusing another company of infringing a specific patent, the accusing company may be drawn into a costly patent lawsuit in a court of the alleged infringers choosing. Of course, there are many exceptions and nuances to DJ actions, but anyone reading this would be well advised to consult with their attorney before accusing anyone of patent infringement.

Although NewPro 3D and Nexa3D havent engaged in patent warfare yet, there is probably some animosity. A stealth company had to come out of the shadows, a Kickstarter campaign was forced to end early, and plenty of anger has spilled onto Internet message boards. What happens next is anyones guess.

John Hornick is a partner and Carlos Rosario is an associate with the Finnegan IP law firm, based in Washington, DC ( ;[emailprotected]). Any opinions in this article are not those of the firm and are not legal advice.

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China state Action Plan aims to make 3D printing worth $3 billion by 2020

HP opens first advanced manufacturing center at $74million Singapore campus

Stanley Black Decker launches Techstars Additive Manufacturing Accelerator

Global Markets for 3-D Printing

The global market for three-dimensional printing will grow from nearly $3.7 billion in 2016 to more than $10.4 billion by 2021, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 23.2% for the period of 2016-2021.

An overview of the global markets for 3D printing.

Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015, 2016, and projections of CAGRs through 2021.

Coverage of five different types of technologies: laser sintering, electron beam melting, fused disposition modeling, laminated object manufacturing, and three dimensional inkjet printing.

Geographic segmentation of the market across North America, Europe and Asia.

Information on materials used including polymers, metals and a few others (such as ceramics and paper).

Evaluation of end-use applications in the areas of aerospace, automotive, consumer, healthcare and research.

Analysis of the markets dynamics, specifically growth drivers, inhibitors, and opportunities.

Profiles of major players in the industry.

The report addresses trends in 3-D printing technology and the global market for the most promising 3-D printing technology applications during the period from 2015 through 2021, including:

Andrew McWilliamsis a partner in 43rdParallel LLC, a Boston-based international technology and marketing consulting firm. He is the author of several other BCC Research market opportunity reports related to 3-D printing technologies and applications.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

SUMMARY TABLE: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

SUMMARY FIGURE: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY TYPE OF PRODUCT OR SERVICE TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS)

HISTORY OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING

TABLE 1: THREE-DIMENSIONALPRINTING HISTORY

PROS AND CONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING VERSUS TRADITIONAL MANUFACTURING

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING END USERS AND APPLICATIONS

TABLE 2: THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS

GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET

FIGURE 1: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS)

GLOBAL MARKET BY PRODUCT OR SERVICE TYPE

TABLE 3: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY PRODUCT OR SERVICE TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

FIGURE 2: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY PRODUCT OR SERVICE TYPE, 2015-2021 (%)

TABLE 4: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY END-USER SECTOR, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

FIGURE 3: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY END-USER SECTOR, 2015-2021 (%)

TABLE 5: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

FIGURE 4: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET SHARES BY APPLICATION, 2015-2021 (%)

TABLE 6: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

FIGURE 5: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY REGION, 2015-2021 (%)

CHAPTER 4 – THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEMS

TABLE 7: THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing

Continuous Liquid Interface Production

TABLE 8: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEM VENDORS

FIGURE 6: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEM VENDOR MARKET SHARES, 2015 (% OF TOTAL SALES)

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEM MARKET, 2015-2021

TABLE 9: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEM MARKET BY SYSTEM TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

FIGURE 7: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEM MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS)

TABLE 10: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEM MARKET BY PROCESS TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

TABLE 11: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEM MARKET SHARES BY PROCESS TYPE, 2015-2021 (%)

CHAPTER 5 – THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MATERIALS

TABLE 12: COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE THREE-DIMENSIONAL THERMOPLASTICS, 2016

Other Commercially Available Thermoplastics

Carbon-Reinforced Engineering Polymers

TABLE 13: PHOTOPOLYMERS USED IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING

TABLE 14: METALS USED IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING

TABLE 15: CERAMICS USED IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING

Ceramic-Filled Photosensitive Resin

Ceramic-Filled Thermoplastic Polymer Filament

TABLE 17: ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES AND MATERIALS

TABLE 18: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MATERIAL VENDORS, 2015

FIGURE 8: MAJOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MATERIAL SUPPLIER MARKET SHARES, 2015 (%)

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MATERIAL MARKET, 2015-2021

FIGURE 9: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MATERIAL MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS)

TABLE 19: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MATERIAL MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

FIGURE 10: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MATERIAL MARKET BY TYPE, 2015-2021 (%)

CHAPTER 6 – THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SOFTWARE AND SERVICES

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SOFTWARE TYPES

TABLE 20: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SOFTWARE PROVIDERS, 2016

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SOFTWARE MARKETS, 2015-2021

TABLE 21: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SOFTWARE MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SERVICES

TABLE 22: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SERVICE PROVIDERS. 2016

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SERVICE MARKETS, 2015-2021

TABLE 23: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING BY SERVICES, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 7 – INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS

TABLE 24: EUROPEAN KEY MARKET PLAYERS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEMS, 2016

TABLE 25: JAPANESE KEY MARKET PLAYERS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEMS, 2016

TABLE 26: U.S. PATENTS ISSUED FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING-RELATED INVENTIONS, 2011-2015

AMERICAN GRAPHITE TECHNOLOGIES INC.

GPI PROTOTYPE & MANUFACTURING SERVICES INC.

GUANGDONG SUNTEC INDUSTRIAL CO. LTD.

SUMMARY TABLE: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

TABLE 1: THREE-DIMENSIONALPRINTING HISTORY

TABLE 2: THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS

TABLE 3: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY PRODUCT OR SERVICE TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

TABLE 4: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY END-USER SECTOR, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

TABLE 5: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

TABLE 6: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

TABLE 7: THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

TABLE 8: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEM VENDORS

TABLE 9: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEM MARKET BY SYSTEM TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

TABLE 10: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEM MARKET BY PROCESS TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

TABLE 11: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEM MARKET SHARES BY PROCESS TYPE, 2015-2021 (%)

TABLE 12: COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE THREE-DIMENSIONAL THERMOPLASTICS, 2016

TABLE 13: PHOTOPOLYMERS USED IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING

TABLE 14: METALS USED IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING

TABLE 15: CERAMICS USED IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING

TABLE 17: ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES AND MATERIALS

TABLE 18: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MATERIAL VENDORS, 2015

TABLE 19: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MATERIAL MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

TABLE 20: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SOFTWARE PROVIDERS, 2016

TABLE 21: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SOFTWARE MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

TABLE 22: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SERVICE PROVIDERS. 2016

TABLE 23: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING BY SERVICES, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)

TABLE 24: EUROPEAN KEY MARKET PLAYERS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEMS, 2016

TABLE 25: JAPANESE KEY MARKET PLAYERS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEMS, 2016

TABLE 26: U.S. PATENTS ISSUED FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING-RELATED INVENTIONS, 2011-2015

SUMMARY FIGURE: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRIN
TING MARKET BY TYPE OF PRODUCT OR SERVICE TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS)

FIGURE 1: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS)

FIGURE 2: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY PRODUCT OR SERVICE TYPE, 2015-2021 (%)

FIGURE 3: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY END-USER SECTOR, 2015-2021 (%)

FIGURE 4: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET SHARES BY APPLICATION, 2015-2021 (%)

FIGURE 5: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MARKET BY REGION, 2015-2021 (%)

FIGURE 6: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEM VENDOR MARKET SHARES, 2015 (% OF TOTAL SALES)

FIGURE 7: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING SYSTEM MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS)

FIGURE 8: MAJOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MATERIAL SUPPLIER MARKET SHARES, 2015 (%)

FIGURE 9: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MATERIAL MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS)

FIGURE 10: GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING MATERIAL MARKET BY TYPE, 2015-2021 (%)

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Industry 4.0 Technologies Market – (Industrial Robotics, 3D Printing, AI, Big Data, Cybersecurity, Cloud Computing, H&V System Integration, Industrial IoT, Sensors, Simulation, VR, AR) 2018-2023

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The Future of 3D Printing for Medical & Pharmaceuticals to 2027

3D Printing Landscape Report and Database

3D PRINTING: MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT OPPORTUNITIES, TRENDS, AND MARKETS

Automotive 3D Printing – Global Market Outlook (2017-2023)

The Smartech Personal 3D Printing Advisory Service

Global intellectual property (IP), patent landscape, state-of-the-art report of 3D printing and rapid manufacturing in medical technology

Ceramics Breaking Through the Next 3D Printing Material Frontier Part 1

Keter Plastics Uses BigRep One to Save Thousands of Dollars on Prototypes Video

Mass Customized, Automotive 3D Printing Production Is Coming in 2018

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3D Systems and Stryker Team Up to Advance Personalized Surgery through VSP

ASTM International Extends AM Center of Excellence Proposal Deadlines

Sintavia Obtains AS9100 Revision D Certification for Aerospace Additive Manufacturing

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BLB Industries Supplies Large Format 3D Printer to NorDan for Window and Door Production

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Ceramics, Breaking Through the Next 3D Printing Material Frontier / Part 1

Ceramics, Breaking Through the Next 3D Printing Material Frontier / Part 1

A high resolution technical ceramics 3D printed partShare31TweetShare76Buffer10EmailShares117In recent months there has been a greater focus on the use of ceramics materials for AM than ever before. This is due to a series of converging trends: on one side several AM technologies are now able to process advanced ceramics materials, on the other, there are now low-cost technologies that are able to use ceramic materials as an ideal material for end-use, biocompatible and even food-compatible products. Technical ceramics are able to provide ideal mechanical properties and 3D printing allows for shaping ceramic parts in complex, high-resolution geometries that have never been possible in the past.

As larger industrial groups become directly involved in ceramic 3D printing technologies, SmarTech Publishing a leading market forecast firm for the AM industry is forecasting the Ceramics AM market including hardware, software, materials and applications (both technical and traditional) to top $3.1 billion by 2027, with rapid adoption in aerospace, medical, industrial manufacturing and even consumer products. For these reasons, 3DPMN launched theCeramics AM Industry Focusthis month, with a dedicatedFocus Section, specifically to cover all the technologies, applications and market evolutions around the additive manufacturing of ceramics. In the following two-part article,Rachel Parkwill explore the latest evolutions in the world of ceramics 3D printing, in terms of leading processes and major new applications.

Davide Sher, CEO, 3D Printing Media NetworkIntroduction

Ceramics are deeply embedded as a functional material in human history, dating back to Asia as early as 12,000 BC in clay forms for pots. Industrial ceramic materials date back to the start of the 20thCentury, and the 1stindustrial revolution when ceramics were used more widely for indoor plumbing, sewer tiles, and bathroom and kitchen fixtures.

As a basic definition, ceramic materials are inorganic, non-solid-metallic materials and, typically at least 30% crystalline. Naturally-occurring clay has traditionally been the foundational material of ceramic materials and remains dominant, but it is not an essential requirement for all ceramic materials today.

Ceramic materials can generally be categorized in four ways:

used in building construction for bricks, pipes and roof/floor tiles etc.

used for kiln linings and crucibles for making steel and glass.

including tableware, decorative tiles, art objects and bathroom furniture (toilets/sinks etc).

advanced ceramic materials, which exhibit high mechanical, chemical, thermal and electrical resistance, and are typically used for space, auto, military and medical applications; generally, do not contain clay.

Within the field of 3D printing and additive manufacturing, ceramic materials as compared with polymer and metal material categories are still playing catch up. There has been and continues to be, significant research and increasing commercial activity around ceramic 3D printing but it is not yet as prolific as the other material categories.

A ceramic part produced by binder jetting technology by Tethon3D, using Tethonite powder on a Zcorp system

Produced by stereolithography by Nervous System using Porcelite material on a Formlabs system

The particular thing to note with ceramic materials utilized for 3D printing is that post-build, the parts that come off the 3D printer need to undergo the same secondary processes as any ceramic part produced using traditional methods of production namely firing (also called sintering) and glazing (dependent on application). The 3D printing stage of the overall process is about producing the desired shape of the part, which, due to the nature of the ceramic materials, remains in a fragile state called the green part. The secondary process of sintering or firing, typically at temperatures greater than 800C, is essentially where the strength is added to the part and the final properties of the material are determined. The ability to process ceramic materials brings the advantage of being able to design and physically build products and parts with complexities that are challenging, or impossible, with traditional methods of manufacture.

As stated, 3D printing with ceramics has generated increasing research and new commercial entities in the last decade with hardware and process development, material development, application development, as well as the emergence of specialized services offering commercially available and proprietary ceramic 3D printing services, and sometimes a combination thereof.

There are three dominant 3D printing processes that can currently accommodate ceramic materials, namely binder jetting, material extrusion, and vat photopolymerization methods, namely stereolithography (SLA) and Digital Light Processing (DLP).

Dominant 3D printing hardware vendo
rs for binder jetting systems that can process industrial (technical) ceramic materials include3D Systems(by way of its previous acquisition of ZCorporation, and subsequent development);VoxeljetandExOne. This process depends on a powder bed of technical ceramic material and a liquid binder material that selectively binds the powder.

DG Shape (previously operating underRoland DG) is another hardware vendor that is currently developing a binder jetting system for 3D printing ceramic materials. A prototype version was on show at formnext last year.

Another company that has recently emerged with a commercial additive manufacturing proposition based on the binder jetting process isJohnson Matthey (JM). Celebrating its 200thanniversary this year, JMs approach has resulted from user evolution. As a long time user of 3D printing technology for prototyping applications, since 2009 the company has invested heavily in developing a proprietary binder jetting process for its own high volume application the production of catalysts, along with proprietary industrial ceramic material development. The company is currently scaling up this production application of 3D printing in-house as well as offering services and support outwards to industrial partners.

What is interesting about the JM application is that the company cites the ability to scale up the binder jetting process more easily than other additive manufacturing processes, with parts equal or better in strength than comparable production methods. Moreover, the characteristic often cited as a limitation of ceramic AM porosity is actually beneficial for the production of catalysts.

The material extrusion process is the most prolifically used 3D printing process courtesy of its adaptation for low-cost desktop systems right through to large frame industrial machines. The development of different extruders for a wide range of different materials also includes clay and ceramic-filled polymers.

Perhaps the company that most expansively illustrates the current capabilities and potential for 3D printing with ceramic materials using the extrusion process is the Italian organizationWASP. It is sometimes easy to forget that WASP is an acronym, short for the Worlds Advanced Saving Project. The premise for the project is continuous research into technological innovation with the purpose of sustainable progress for a better world. The ultimate aim is the development of large-scale 3D printers for the production of low-cost sustainable housing projects using materials in plentiful supply from the region where the homes are being built. Key to the progress that the company is making is the development of an adjustable fluid-dense extruder theliquid deposit modelling (LDM) WASP extruderthat is compatible with clay, ceramics, porcelain, alumina, zirconium and advanced ceramics.

Other companies that have developed desktop extrusion systems for ceramic materials include Vorm VRIJ which has developed the LUTUM series of clay 3D printers, 3D Figo with the FFD 150H system, and, more recently, DeltaBots 3D Potterbot 7, and the Clay XYZ printer which was successfully funded onKickstarterlast month.

Vorm VRIJ, a husband and wife team based in the Netherlands, has a similar remit to WASP, driven primarily by sustainability, but with an evident focus also on art and design. There are three 3D printers in the LUTUM range The LUTUM mini, with a single extruder and 45 x 44 x 45 cm build volume; the LUTUM MXL, with a build volume of 45 x 44 x 75 cm that comes standard with a single extruder but can be configured with a dual extruder; and the LUTUM dual (experimental) system with dual extruders for two colour printing.

The3D Potterbot 7from DeltaBots prints ceramic products up to 36 inches in the Z axis with thick clay, a claim that sets it apart from comparable 3D printers according to the company. Once again this capability is enabled by the proprietary extruder, which features nozzles that can be sized between 1mm and 16 mm.

Figo-3D has developed the FFD 150H 3D printing system, where FFD is an acronym for Fused Feedstock Deposition. The premise of this system is that it can process both ceramic and metallic materials based on stand CIM and MIM stock, according to the company. The build volume for the FFD 150 H is 15 x 15 x 12 cm.

As the originator of the SLA process, 3D Systems unsurprisingly offers a range of ceramic filledSLA resins.

3D Ceram, a company based in France, has developed a hardware system specifically for 3D printing photocurable ceramic paste materials (alumina, zirconia or hydroxyapatite (HA)). The Ceramaker 900 system is both offered for sale and as a service and has a build volume of 30 x 30 x 11 cm with a resolution down to 25 microns.

Like 3D Ceram, ADMATEC in the Netherlands developed proprietary hardware based on its ADMAFLEX technology for the production of highly dense ceramic components using the DLP process and filled resins (Alumina / Zirconia / Fused Silica). Claiming densities than 99%, this process was originally (and continues to be) offered as a service, but since 2016 has been available for purchase in the form of theADMAFLEX 130system.

Lithoz, based in Austria, has a similar background too, in what is a developing historical pattern for 3D printing ceramic companies. In this case, however, Lithoz focuses on the entire value chain of ceramic manufacturing including hardware, software, specifically developed ceramic materials and services. The proprietary Lithoz AM process for high-performance ceramics is called Lithography-based Ceramic Manufacturing (LCM) and uses technical, high-performance ceramic materials to produce parts with the same material properties as conventionally formed parts, according to the company. The commercialization of the process was the result of a project initiated in 2006 at the TU Vienna.

In terms of process innovation, Israel based XJet is close to commercializing a direct Ceramic Inkjet Printing system based on its proprietary NanoParticle Jetting technology. Essentially, this process jets ultra-thin layers of droplets containing ceramic nanoparticles, which are deposited onto the system build-tray, producing ceramic parts directly as the dispersion liquid evaporates due to the extremely high temperatures of the process. Interestingly, I learned that a primary driver for XJet to move into ceramics came from the dental industry, which will likely be a dominant application.

Check outPart 2 of this article, where Rachel explores the leading materials, services and applications that are breaking through the next 3D printing material frontier.Share31TweetShare76Buffer10EmailShares117top news2017-12-06Rachel ParkAbout Rachel ParkRachel is a freelance writer and editor with more than 25 years experience. Her specific area of expertise is the 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing sector, a market she has been immersed in since 1996.@RPES12PreviousMIT Engineers 3D Print Programmed Cells Into a Living Tattoo / VideoNextUsing 3D Printing to Enhance Mine Risk Education Programs in SyriaRelated ArticlesGartners Top 3 Failed Predic…

Share31 Tweet Share76 Buffer10 EmailShares 117 Tethon 3D, one of the leading innovators in ceramics 3D

Lecture 7 Vat Photopolymerization

Vat Photopolymerization (definition)

Liquid photopolymer selectively cured by light activation

1. Stereo Lithography Apparatus (SLA)

(acrylates & vinylethers convert one double bond into one single bond)

-relationship between process variables & their impact on the final product

-eliminate trial & error from determining best settings of the variables

1. The photo-polymer resin obeys the Beer-Lamberts Law of exponential absorption

3. The resin transition from liquid to solid is at the gel point specified by critical exposure = E_c

The laser scans along what direction? (x, y, or z)

What direction is lateral to the scanning direction? (x, y, or z)

What direction extends directly downwards from the laser scan axis & is measured normal to x-y plane? (x, y, or z)

mathematical model of cure depth as a function of hatch spacing to provide insight into the cure behavior of ACES

determine the number of scan vectors that provide significant exposure to P

-volumetric shrinkage due to residual stresses

occurs over unsupported portions of the part

Green Creep Distortion (definition)

if surface tension of liquid resin is higher than the surface energy of cured layer = liquid balls up

-surface tension of cured layer depends on degree of cure

infusion of liquid into the green part

-dipping part in resin & sweeping with blade to wipe off excess resin resulting in PRECISELY controlled layer thickness.

Used by early machines & thickness obtained as a result of sweeping velocity, viscosity of resin, etc.

Vat Photopolymerization

Make Parts Fast provides news and information about 3D printing, digital manufacturing, prototype parts and rapid manufacturing.

December 15, 2017ByLeslie LangnauLeave a Comment

Polyurethane foam chemistry is used in many applications across industry verticals such as automotive, packaging, construction, electronics, bedding, and furniture. But innovations in foams comfort, performance, and safety have been evolutionary at [Read more…]

Filed Under:3D Printers,Additive Manufacturing,Consumer Products,Entertainment,Featured,Leslies blog,Materials,Rapid MFG,Software,Vat PhotopolymerizationTagged With:Carbon3D

November 29, 2017ByLeslie LangnauLeave a Comment

Carbon announced a new version of its next-gen 3D printing software that expands its tools to design, engineer and make polymeric parts using Carbons Digital Light Synthesis (DLS) technology and resins. With this software release, Carbon offers a [Read more…]

Filed Under:Additive Manufacturing,Industries,News,Rapid MFG,Software,Vat PhotopolymerizationTagged With:Carbon3D

November 27, 2017ByLeslie Langnau1 Comment

EnvisionTEC recently released a new 3D printerthe Aria. The Aria produces parts with excellent surface finish and function. Z layer resolution can be set at 25, 35 or 50 microns, depending on material. Built on EnvisionTECs popular Micro [Read more…]

Filed Under:3D Printers,Additive Manufacturing,Consumer Products,Industrial,Vat PhotopolymerizationTagged With:EnvisionTEC

November 19, 2017ByLeslie LangnauLeave a Comment

An innovative use of 3D printers is to print optical lenses. Several companies offer materials suitable for automotive lenses, and even one uses 3D printers to make lenses for glasses. But lenses are not a common application for 3D printing [Read more…]

Filed Under:3D Printers,Additive Manufacturing,Entertainment,Featured,Materials,News,Vat PhotopolymerizationTagged With:Formlabs

November 15, 2017ByLeslie LangnauLeave a Comment

BASF, a world-leading chemical company, and Xaar, a world leader in industrial inkjet technology, are collaborating to improve the Photopolymer Jetting (PPJ) process also known as Material Deposition. The goal is to enable manufacturers to produce [Read more…]

Filed Under:3D Printers,Additive Manufacturing,Materials,News,Vat PhotopolymerizationTagged With:basf

November 9, 2017ByLeslie LangnauLeave a Comment

Carbon, a Silicon Valley-based 3D manufacturing company, announced the release of Silicone (SIL 30), a soft, tear-resistant, biocompatible resin, opening up additive manufacturing applications for a range of medical and consumer products such as [Read more…]

Filed Under:Additive Manufacturing,Materials,Medical,Vat PhotopolymerizationTagged With:Carbon3D

November 8, 2017ByLeslie LangnauLeave a Comment

I first saw 3D Systems Figure 4 platform at an AMUG Conference. Since then, the company has made some changes to it that make it a modular, scalable, fully-integrated direct 3D production platform. (The name Figure 4 comes from the fourth 2D drawing [Read more…]

Filed Under:3D Printers,Additive Manufacturing,Featured,Materials,News,Vat PhotopolymerizationTagged With:3dSystems

September 26, 2017ByLeslie LangnauLeave a Comment

The cost of 3D printing materials is viewed as one of the inhibitors to wider adoption and usage of additive manufacturing. Carbon, a Silicon Valley-based 3D manufacturing company, is introducing an approach that CEO and Co-founder Dr. Joseph M. [Read more…]

Filed Under:Additive Manufacturing,Materials,Vat PhotopolymerizationTagged With:Carbon

September 25, 2017ByLeslie LangnauLeave a Comment

Union Technology Corp. will launch its PILOT commercial series at the TCT Show, in Birmingham UK, September 26-28. The PILOT product line is for additive manufacturers looking for high quality equipment with excellent surface aesthetics, application [Read more…]

Filed Under:3D Printers,Additive Manufacturing,Vat PhotopolymerizationTagged With:uniontech

September 6, 2017ByLeslie LangnauLeave a Comment

Heres a novel way to use the capabilities of 3D printing. This machine uses DLP 3D printing technology to create a hollow shell mold, which is then injected with a plastic material or metal powder. The material in the mold hardens, the mold is [Read more…]

Filed Under:3D Printers,Additive Manufacturing,Materials,Rapid MFG,Rapid Prototyping,Vat PhotopolymerizationTagged With:Collider

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3D Systems Expands Vat Photopolymerization Offerings

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3D Systems Expands Vat Photopolymerization Offerings

Todd Grimmposted on January 23, 20149541 views

Desktop Projet 1200 uses Digital Light Projection – DLP

Although the moniker didnt exist at the time, 3D Systems created the very first vat photopolymerization technology, stereolithography. Recently, it extended its product line in this technology class with a big stereolithography machine and its first-ever DLP 3D printer.

The new ProJet 1200 is a small desktop unit that uses DLP, or digital light projection. Even though 3D Systems calls this a micro SLA, which would seem to imply that it uses the stereolithography process, this 3D printer projects light using a DLP chip that you can find in small projectors.

It has a build envelope of 1.7 X 1.1 X 7.1 inches that will make small parts and castable patterns. It uses 0.0012 inch layers and has 0.0018 inch resolution for fine details.

The ProJet 1200 uses a new material, VisiJet FTX Green that is delivered in a proprietary cartridge. The cartridge concept provides a new print window, thats the film through which the DLP shines its light, with every cartridge change so you dont have the hassle of replacing Teflon.

Although 3D Systems touts this as revolutionary, to my eye it appears that it has licensed this little 3D printer from Taiwan-based MiiCraft, which introduced its version in mid-2012 following its Indiegogo funding campaign.

For much bigger parts or hundreds of small parts, 3D Systems introduced the ProX 950, which replaces the iPro 9000 XL. This stereolithography system has a large 59 X 30 X 22-inch build envelope. To keep throughput high, 3D Systems has outfitted it with dual 1,450 milliwatt lasers that draw at up to 1,000 inches per second with a 0.030-inch spot size. It also focuses the beam down to 0.005 inch for finer detail and smoother surfaces.

Those lasers are part of the ProJet 950s new PolyRay print head technology, which 3D Systems claims is up to ten times faster than other 3D printers.

Watch the latestIn Shortvideo for more details on these and other new announcements.

Electrical Enclosures and Electronics Packaging

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Post Tagged with vat photopolymerization

CeramicDesign for Additive ManufacturingProcess ResearchResearch of MaterialsStereolithography (SLA)

Alumina is a high-temperature high-strength ceramic with properties desirable for many applications. We have had initial success printing alumina at resin loading concentrations from 40%-60% by weight. The powder is Continue reading

September 25, 2016/CeramicResearch of MaterialsStereolithography (SLA)

Ceramics are high-performance materials that are processed from crystalline powders into slurries that can be 3D printed using vat photopolymerization. They are sintered at temperatures commonly above 1000 degrees C to Continue reading

March 25, 2015/Design for Additive ManufacturingPolymerResearch of MaterialsStereolithography (SLA)

Project Overview Goal: Fabrication of designed tissue scaffolds with controlled porosity, pore size, and pore shape that promote vascularization. Key Results: Fabrication of tissue scaffolds with micron-scale feature sizes from bioactive, biocompatible, Continue reading

Photopolymer

is apolymerthat changes its properties when exposed to light, often in theultravioletorvisibleregion of theelectromagnetic spectrum.These changes are often manifested structurally, for example hardening of the material occurs as a result ofcross-linkingwhen exposed to light. An example is shown below depicting a mixture ofmonomersoligomers, andphotoinitiatorsthat conform into a hardened polymeric material through a process calledcuring.A wide variety of technologically useful applications rely on photopolymers, for example someenamelsandvarnishesdepend on photopolymer formulation for proper hardening upon exposure to light. In some instances, an enamel can cure in a fraction of a second when exposed to light, as opposed to thermally cured enamels which can require half an hour or longer.Curable materials are widely used for medical, printing, andphotoresisttechnologies.

Changes in structural and chemical properties can be induced internally bychromophoresthat thepolymersubunit already possesses, or externally by addition ofphotosensitivemolecules. Typically a photopolymer consists of a mixture of multifunctionalmonomersandoligomersin order to achieve the desired physical properties, and therefore a wide variety ofmonomersandoligomershave been developed that canpolymerizein the presence of light either through internal or externalinitiation. Photopolymers undergo a process called curing, whereoligomersarecross-linkedupon exposure to light, forming what is known as anetwork polymer. The result of photo curing is the formation of athermosetnetwork of polymers. One of the advantages ofphoto-curingis that it can be done selectively using high energy light sources, for examplelasers, however, most systems are not readily activated by light, and in this case aphotoinitiatoris required.Photoinitiatorsare compounds that upon radiation of light decompose into reactive species that activatepolymerizationof specificfunctional groupson theoligomers.[5]An example of a mixture that undergoes cross-linking when exposed to light is shown below. The mixture consists of monomericstyreneand oligomericacrylates.[6]

Most commonly, photopolymerized systems are typically cured through UV radiation, sinceultravioletlight is more energetic; however, the development of dye-basedphotoinitiatorsystems have allowed for the use ofvisible light, having potential advantages of processes that are more simple and safe to handle.[7]UV curingin industrial processes has greatly expanded over the past several decades. Many traditional thermally cured andsolvent-based technologies can be replaced by photopolymerization technologies. The advantages ofphotopolymerizationover thermally curedpolymerizationinclude high rates ofpolymerizationand environmental benefits from elimination of volatileorganic solvents.[1]

There are two general routes for photoinitiation:free radicalandionic.[1][4]The general process involves doping a batch of neat polymer with small amounts ofphotoinitiator, followed by selective radiation of light, resulting a highlycross-linkedproduct. Many of these reactions do not require solvent which eliminatesterminationpath via reaction of initiators withsolventand impurities, in addition to decreasing the overall cost.[8]

In ionic curing process, an ionicphotoinitiatoris used to activate thefunctional groupof theoligomersthat are going to participate incross-linking. Typicallyphotopolymerizationis a very selective process and it is crucial that thepolymerizationtakes place only where it is desired to do so. In order to satisfy this liquid neat oligomer can be doped with eitheranionicorcationicphotoinitiators that willinitiatepolymerization only when radiated withlightMonomers, or functional groups, employed in cationic photopolymerization include:styreniccompounds,vinyl ethers, N-vinylcarbazoleslactones, lactams, cyclicethers, cyclicacetals, and cyclicsiloxanes. The majority of ionic photoinitiators fall under the cationic class, anionic photoinitiators are considerably less investigated.[5]There are several classes of cationic initiators including:Onium saltsorganometalliccompounds andpyridiniumsalts.[5]As mentioned earlier, one of the drawbacks of the photoinitiators used for photopolymerization is that they tend to absorb in the shortUV region.[7]Photosensitizers, orchromophores, that absorb in a much longer wavelength region can be employed to excite the photoinitiators through an energy transfer.[5]Other modifications to these types of systems arefree radicalassisted cationic polymerization. In this case, a free radical is formed from another specie in solution that reacts with the photoinitiator in order to start polymerization. Although there are a diverse group of compounds activated by cationic photoinitiators, the compounds that find most industrial uses containepoxides, oxetanes, and vinyl ethers.[9]One of the advantages to using cationic photopolymerization is that once the polymerization has begun it is no longer sensitive tooxygenand does not require aninertatmosphere to perform well.[1]

\displaystyle \beginmatrix\\\ce [R-R+X^-]-[hv][R-R+X-]^\ast -R^.++R^.+X^–[\ce MH]R+-H+M-R+X^–R+H+X^-\\\endmatrix

The proposed mechanism forbegins with thephotoexcitationof the initiator. Once excited, bothhomolyticcleavage and dissociation of a counteraniontakes place, generatingcationic radical(R), an arylradical(R) and unaltered counter anion (X). The abstraction of alewis acid, in figure above ahydrogen, by the cationic radical produces a very weakly bound hydrogen and afree radical. The acid is furtherdeprotonatedby the anion(X) in solution generating a lewis acid with the starting anion (X) as a counter ion. It is thought that the acidicprotongenerated is what ultimately initiates thepolymerization.[10]

Since their discovery in the 1970s arylonium salts, more specificallyiodoniumandsulfoniumsalts, have received much attention and have found many industrial applications. Other less common, onium salts not mentioned here includeammoniumandphosphoniumsalts.[9]

The typicalonium compoundused as aphotoinitiatorcontains two or threearenegroups for iodonium and sulfonium respectively. Onium salts generally absorb short wavelength light in theUV regionspanning from 225300nm.[11]One characteristic that is crucial to the performance of the onium photoinitiators is that the counteranionis non-nucleophilic. Since theBrønsted acidgenerated during theinitiationstep is considered the active initiator forpolymerization, there is aterminationroute where the counter ion of the acid could act as the nucleophile instead of a functional groups on the oligomer. Common counter anions include:BF−

6. There is an indirect relationship between the size of the counter ion and percent conversion.

Although less common,transition metalcomplexes can act as cationicphotoinitiatorsas well. In general, the mechanism is more simplistic than theoniumions previously described. Most photoinitiators of this class consist of a metal salt with a non-nucleophilic counter anion. For example,ferrociniumsalts have received much attention for commercial applications.[12]The absorption band for ferrocinium salt derivatives are in a much longer, and sometimesvisible, region. Upon radiation the metal center loses aligand(s) and the ligand(s) is replaced byfunctional groupsthat begin thepolymerization. One of the drawbacks of this method is a greater sensitivity tooxygen. There are also severalorganometallicanionic photoinitiators which react through a similar mechanism. For theanioniccase, excitation of a metal center is followed by eitherheterolyticbond cleavage orelectron transfergenerating the active anionicinitiator.[5]

Generallyare N-substitutedpyridinederivatives, with a positive charge placed on thenitrogen. The counter ion is in most cases a non-nucleophilic anion. Upon radiation,homolyticbond cleavage takes place generating a pyridiniumcationic radicaland a neutralfree radical. In most cases, ahydrogenatom is abstracted from theoligomerby the pyridinium radical. The free radical generated from the hy
drogen abstraction is then terminated by the free radical in solution. This results in a strong pyridinium acid that can initiatepolymerization.[13]

Before thefree radicalnature of certainpolymerizationswas determined, certainmonomerswere observed to polymerize when exposed to light. The first to demonstrate the photoinduced free radical chain reaction ofvinyl bromidewasIvan Ostromislensky, a Russian chemist who also studied the polymerization ofsynthetic rubber. Subsequently, many compounds were found to become dissociated by light and found immediate use asphotoinitiatorsin the polymerization industry.[1]In the free radical mechanism of radiation curable systems light absorbed by aphotoinitiatorgenerates free-radicals which induce cross-linking reactions of a mixture of functionalized oligomers and monomers to generate the cured film[14]Photocurable materials that form through the free-radical mechanism undergochain-growth polymerization, which includes three basic steps:initiationchain propagation, andchain termination. The three steps are depicted in the scheme below, whereR•represents the radical that forms upon interaction with radiation during initiation, andMis a monomer.[4]The active monomer that is formed is then propagated to create growing polymeric chain radicals. In photocurable materials the propagation step involves reactions of the chain radicals with reactive double bonds of the prepolymers or oligomers. The termination reaction usually proceeds throughcombination, in which two chain radicals are joined together, or throughdisproportionation, which occurs when an atom (typically hydrogen) is transferred from one radical chain to another resulting in two polymeric chains.

\displaystyle \beginalignedInitiatior+h_\nu &\ce -R^\bullet \\\ce R^\bullet +M\ &\ce -RM^\bullet \endaligned

\displaystyle \ce RM^\bullet +M_\mathit n-RM_\mathit n+1^\bullet

\displaystyle \ce RM_\mathit n^\bullet +^\bullet M_\mathit mR-RM_\mathit nM_\mathit mR

\displaystyle \ce RM_\mathit n^\bullet +^\bullet M_\mathit mR-RM_\mathit n+M_\mathit mR

Most composites that cure through radical chain growth contain a diverse mixture of oligomers and monomers withfunctionalitythat can range from 2-8 and molecular weights from 500-3000. In general, monomers with higher functionality result is a tighter crosslinking density of the finished material.[5]Typically these oligomers and monomers alone do not absorb sufficient energy for the commercial light sources used, therefore photoinitiators are included.[4][14]

There are two types of free-radical photoinitators: A two component system where the radical is generated throughabstractionof a hydrogen atom from a donor compound (also called co-initiator), and a one component system where two radicals are generated bycleavage. Examples of each type of free-radical photoinitiator is shown below.[14]

BenzophenoneXanthones, andQuinonesare examples of abstraction type photoinitiators, with common donor compounds being aliphatic amines. The resultingR•species from the donor compound becomes the initiator for the free radical polymerization process, while the radical resulting from the starting photoinitiator (benzophenone in the example shown above) is typically unreactive.

Benzoin ethers,Acetophenones, Benzoyl Oximes, and Acylphosphines are some examples of cleavage-type photoinitiators. Cleavage readily occurs for the species to give two radicals upon absorption of light, and both radicals generated can typically initiate polymerization. Cleavage type photoinitiators do not require a co-initiator, such as aliphatic amines. This can be beneficial since amines are also effectivechain transferspecies. Chain-transfer processes reduce the chain length and ultimately the crosslink density of the resulting film.

The properties of a photocured material, such as flexibility, adhesion, and chemical resistance are provided by the functionalized oligomers present in the photocurable composite. Oligomers are typicallyepoxidesurethanespolyethers, orpolyesters, each of which provide specific properties to the resulting material. Each of these oligomers are typically functionallized by anacrylate. An example shown below is an epoxy oligomer that has been functionalized byacrylic acid. Acrylated epoxies are useful as coatings on metallic substrates, and result in glossy hard coatings. Acrylated urethane oligomers are typically abrasion resistant, tough, and flexible making ideal coatings for floors, paper, printing plates, and packaging materials. Acrylated polyethers and polyesters result in very hard solvent resistant films, however, polyethers are prone to UV degradation and therefore are rarely used in UV curable material. Often formulations are composed of several types of oligomers to achieve the desirable properties for a material.[4]

The monomers used in radiation curable systems help control the speed of cure, crosslink density, final surface properties of the film, and viscosity of the resin. Examples of monomers includestyreneN-Vinylpyrrolidone, andacrylates. Styrene is a low cost monomer and provides a fast cure, N-vinylpyrrolidone results in a material that is highly flexible when cured, has low toxicity, and acrylates are highly reactive, allowing for rapid cure rates, and are highly versatile with monomer functionality ranging from monofunctional to tetrafunctional. Like oligomers, several types of monomers can be employed to achieve the desirable properties of the final material.[4]

Photopolymerization is a widely used technology, used in applications ranging from imaging to biomedical uses. Below is a description of just some photopolymerization applications.

Dentistry is one market wherefree radicalphotopolymers have found wide usage as adhesives, sealant composites, and protective coatings. Thesedental compositesare based on a camphorquinonephotoinitiatorand a matrix containingwith inorganic fillers such assilicon dioxide. Resin cements are utilized inlutingcastceramic, fullporcelain, andveneerrestorations that are thin or translucent to permit visible light penetration and thus polymerize the cement. Light-activated cements may be radiolucent and are usually provided in various shades since they are utilized in esthetically demanding situations.[15]

Conventionalhalogen bulbsargon lasersandare currently used in clinical practice. A new technological approach for curing light-activated oralbiomaterialsis presented. The new light curing unit (LCU) is based on bluelight-emitting diodes(LED). The main benefits of LED LCU technology are: long lifetime of LED LCU (several thousand hours), no filters or cooling fan required, virtually no decrease of light output over lifetime with resulting consistent and high quality of material curing. Simple depth of cure experiments ofdental compositescured with LED technology show promising results.[16]

Photocurableadhesives are also used in the production ofcathetershearing aidssurgical masks, medical filters, and blood analysis sensors.[1]Photopolymers have also been explored for uses in drug delivery, tissue engineering and cell encapsulation systems.[17]Photopolymerization processes for these applications are being developed to be carried outin vivoorex vivo.In vivophotopolymerization would provide the advantages of production and implantation with minimal invasive surgery.Ex vivophotopolymerization would allow for fabrication of complex matrices, and versatility of formulation. Although photopolymers show promise for a wide range of new biomedical applications, biocompatibility with photopolymeric materials must still be addressed and developed.

Stereolithographydigital imaging, and3D inkjet printingare just a few3D imagingtechnologies that make use of photopolymers.3D imagingusually proceeds withCAD-CAMsoftware, which creates a 3D image to be translated into a 3D plastic object. The image is cut in slices, where each slice is reconstructed through radiation curing of the liquidpolymer,converting the image into a solid object. Photopolymers used in 3D imaging processes must be desig
ned to have a low volume shrinkage uponpolymerizationin order to avoid distortion of the solid object. Common monomers utilized for 3D imaging include multifunctionalacrylatesandmethacrylatescombined with a non-polymeric component in order to reduce volume shrinkage. A competing composite mixture of epoxide resins with cationic photoinitiators is becoming increasingly used since their volume shrinkage uponring-opening polymerizationis significantly below those of acrylates and methacrylates.Free-radicalandcationicpolymerizations composed of both epoxide and acrylate monomers have also been employed, gaining the high rate of polymerization from the acryilic monomer, and better mechanical properties from the epoxy matrix.[1]

Photoresistsare coatings, oroligomers, that are deposited on a surface and are designed to change properties upon irradiation oflight. These changes eitherpolymerizethe liquidoligomersinto insolublecross-linkednetwork polymers or decompose the already solid polymers into liquid products. Polymers that formnetworksduringphotopolymerizationare referred to asnegative resist. Conversely,polymersthat decompose duringphotopolymerizationare referred to aspositive resists. Bothpositiveandnegative resistshave found many applications including the design and production of micro fabicated chips. The ability to pattern the resist using a focused light source has driven the field ofphotolithography.

As mentioned,negative resistsare photopolymers that become insoluble upon exposure to radiation. They have found a variety of commercial applications. Especially in the area of designing and printing small chips for electronics. A characteristic found in mostnegative tone resistsis the presence ofmultifunctionalbranches on thepolymersused. Radiation of thepolymersin the presence of anintiatorresults in the formation of chemically resistantnetwork polymer. A commonfunctional groupused innegative resistis. An example of a widely usedpolymerof this class isSU-8SU-8was one of the firstpolymersused in this field, and found applications in wire board printing.[18]In the presence of aphotopolymerSU-8formsnetworkswith otherpolymersin solution. Basic scheme shown below.

SU-8is an example of anforming a matrix ofcross-linkedmaterial.Negative resistscan also be made using co-polymerization. In the event that you have two differentmonomers, oroligomers, in solution with multiplefunctionalitiesit is possible for the two topolymerizeand form a less solublepolymer.

Manufacturers also use light curing systems in OEM assembly applications such as specialty electronics or medical device applications.[19]

As mentioned,positive resistexposure to radiation changes the chemical structure such that it becomes a liquid or more soluble. These changes in chemical structure are often rooted in the cleavage of specificlinkersin thepolymer. Once irradiated, the decomposedpolymerscan be washed away using a developersolventleaving behind thepolymerthat was not exposed tolight. This type of technology allows the production of very fine stencils for applications such asmicroelectronics.[20]In order to have these types of qualities,positive resistutilizepolymerswithlabilelinkers in their back bone that can be cleaved upon irradiation or using aphoto-generated acidtohydrolyzebonds in thepolymer. Apolymerthat decomposes upon irradiation to a liquid, or more soluble product is referred to as apositive tone resist. Commonfunctional groupsthat can be hydrolyzed byphoto-generated acidcatalyst includepolycarbonatesandpolyesters.[21]

Photopolymer can be used to generate printing plates, which are then pressed onto paper likemetal type.[22]This is often used in modern fine printing to achieve the effect ofembossing(or the more subtly three-dimensional effect ofletterpress printing) from designs created on a computer without needing to engrave designs into metal or cast metal type. It is often used for business cards.[23][24]

Industrial facilities are utilizing light-activated resin as a sealant for leaks and cracks. Some light-activated resins have unique properties that make it ideal as a pipe repair product. These resins cure rapidly on any wet or dry surface.[25]

Light-activated resins recently gained a foothold with fly tiers as a way to create custom flies, in a short period of time, with very little clean up involved.[26]

Recently, light-activated resins have found a place in floor refinishing applications, offering instant return to service not available with any other chemistry due to the need to cure at ambient temperatures. Because of application constraints, these coatings are exclusively UV cured with portable equipment containing high intensity discharge lamps. Such UV coatings are now commercially available for a variety of substrates, such as wood, vinyl composition tile and concrete, replacing traditional polyurethanes for wood refinishing and low durability acrylics for VCT.

Reichmanis, Elsa; Crivello, James (2014). Photopolymer Materials and Processes for Advanced Technologies.

Phillips, Roger (1984). Photopolymerization.

: 7982.doi10.1016/0047-2670(84)85016-9.

Burton, Jeff.A Primer on UV-Curable Inkjet Inks. Specialty Graphic Imaging Association.

Light-Associated Reactions of Synthetic Polymers

. Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.ISBN0-387-31803-8.

Photoinitiators for Polymer Synthesis: Scope, Reactivity and Efficiency

. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.ISBN45.

Radiation Chemistry in EB-and UV-Light Cured Inks. Paint & Coatings Industry.

Fouassier, J.P.; Allonas, X.; Burget, D. (2003). Photopolyermziation reactions under visible lights: principle, mechanisms and examples of applications.

: 1636.doi10.1016/S0300-9440(03)00011-0.

Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials

. CRC Press: Taylor and Francis Group. p.76.

Crivello, J.; E. Reichmanis (2014). Photopolymer Materials and Processes for Advanced Technologies.

Hypervalent Iodine Chemistry: Preparation, Structure, and Synthetic Applications of Polyvalent Iodine Compounds

. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. p.427.

Photoinitiators for Polymer Synthesis: Scope, Reactivity, and Efficiency

. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. p.293.

TAKAHASHI, EIJI; FUMIO SANDA; TAKESHI ENDO (2002). Novel pyridinium salts as cationic thermal and photoinitiators and their photosensitization properties.

Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry

(8): 1037.Bibcode2002JPoSA..40.1037Tdoi10.1002/pola.10186.

Radiation Curing of Polymeric Materials

. Washington, DC: Am. Chem. Soc. pp.115.

Restorative Dentistry: A new approach for curing light activated oral biomaterials: Article: British Dental Journal

Baroli, Biancamaria (2006). Photopolymerization of biomaterials.

UV Light Curing Systems – UV Curing Spot Lamps, UV Flood Lamps, UV Focused Beam Lamps, UV Conveyor Systems

Introduction to Materials Chemistry

. Wiley and Sons. pp.248258.ISBN31.

What is a faux-emboss?. Dolce Press

Letterpress polymer plate service. Old City Press

What is Letterpress?. Baltimore Print Studios

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3D Printing in Dentistry 2018: AN OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS AND TEN-YEAR FORECAST

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3D Printing in Dentistry 2018: AN OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS AND TEN-YEAR FORECAST

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In 2017, 3D printing went mainstream in the dental industry. A number of high profile business ventures and acquisitions have continued to propel dental applications utilizing 3D printing technologies firmly into the sights of the largest dental services and solutions providers in the world. As the additive industry continues to transition, as a whole, towards manufacturing applications, the growth path for most existing polymer print technologies has faltered somewhat by historical comparison. This has allowed for well established, high value applications in healthcare to really shine and earn major focus of stakeholders in the industry.

Dentists worldwide continue to leverage digital workflows and manufacturing processes, having long since identified that digital dentistry represents the future of the industry. Indeed, 3D printing is well positioned to become the leading digital process in dental fabrication worldwide given its flexibility in efficient and accurate production of everything from dental models, to orthodontic aligners, to PFM restorations, to denture frameworks and beyond.

This third dedicated study expands coverage to consider the greater transformative potential of 3D printing in dentistry, which is in better enabling dental treatment by bringing personalized device fabrication closer to the point of care -in the dentists office. Included in this comprehensive report are the following:

Ten-year 3D printing opportunity and market data forecasts in volume and value terms. These cover

hardware, materials, software, and services

Expanded market data to include key metrics at a country level, better capturing the cultural attitudes towards advanced digital dental care and approaches to implementation

Expanded market data to include key metrics by end-user profile, including dental caregivers and dental laboratories/production centers

An updated version of SmarTechs innovative Comprehensive Guide to Dental 3D Printing Solutions which features the most complete evaluation of available dental printers and materials

The latest trailing twelve month activity and competitive analysis to reflect the rapidly evolving landscape in which major dental providers are now interfacing directly with printer manufacturers, materials companies, and solutions developers

All in all, this is the most extensive exploration of where the opportunities will be found in additive manufactured dental products in the next decade. It will be regarded as essential reading for everyone in the value chain for 3D-printed products.

Chapter One: Interfacing with the Dental Industry and Trailing Twelve-Month Market Review

1.1. State of Digital Dentistry Adoption Worldwide and Trends in Dental Care

1.1.1. North America – U.S. and Canada

1.1.3. Asia Pacific – China, Japan, Australia, Korea

1.1.4. Rest of World – Middle East, Israel, India

1.1.5. Ongoing Dental Market Trends Affecting Adoption of 3D Printing and Digital Processes

1.2. The Market Landscape for Dental 3D Printing Technology

1.2.1. Established Market: 3D Printing Opportunities in the Laboratory and Dental Production Center

1.2.2. Emerging Opportunity: 3D Printing Opportunities in the Dental Office and Oral Surgery Clinics

1.3. Trailing Twelve-Month Market Activity Updates

1.3.1. 3D Printing Entering the Mainstream of Dental Care

1.3.2. Other Major Dental Printing Product Announcements – Printers, Materials, and Business Relationships

1.4. Exploring Relationships Between Additive Digital Dentistry Solutions and Incumbent Subtractive Solutions

1.4.1. Coexistence of Subtractive and Additive in Dental Production

1.4.2. 3D Printing Technologies Further Penetrating Permanent Restorative Applications – the End of Subtractive CADCAM?

1.5. Latest Evolutions in 3D Printing Solutions and Their Potential Impact on Dental 3DP Markets

1.5.1. Introduction of Competing Processes and Low-Cost Technologies for the Office and In-house Laboratory

1.5.2. Development and Commercialization of Continuous Photopolymerization Processes

1.5.3. Ongoing Efforts in Ceramic 3D Printing and 3D-Printed Composite Restorations

1.5.3.1. Direct Photopolymerization of Highly Filled Dental Composites

1.5.3.2. Developmental Jetting Processes with Great Potential for Dental Ceramic Production

1.6. Summary of Latest Outlook for Dental 3D Printing and Penetration Analysis

1.6.1. Outlook for Metal Additive Manufacturing Solutions in Global Dental Markets

1.6.2. Outlook for Non-Metal 3D Printing Solutions in Global Dental Markets

1.6.3. Summary of Penetration Analysis for Dental 3D Printing

Chapter Two: The 2018 Comprehensive Dental 3D Printing Hardware and Materials Guide

2.1. Ongoing Considerations for Hardware Development for Dental 3D Printing

2.1.1. Polymer Printing Technology Development Considerations

2.1.2. Metal Printing Technology Development Considerations

2.2. Primary Polymer Dental 3D Print Processes: Professional Photopolymerization Technologies

2.2.1. High-Speed Photopolymerization and its Impact on Dental 3D Printing Applications

2.2.1.1. Carbon Digital Light Synthesis/CLIP

2.2.2. Leading Photopolymerization Systems by Product Class

2.2.3. Analysis of Available Dental Printing Materials (UV- Sensitive Resins)

2.2.4. Analysis of Photopolymerization Hardware Metrics

2.3. Primary Polymer Dental 3D Print Processes: Material Jetting

2.3.1. Leading Systems by Product Class and New Releases

2.3.2. Comparing Polyjet, SCP, and MultiJet Printing Product Lines for Dental Applications

2.3.3. Analysis of Available Dental Printing Materials (Jettable Resins)

2.3.4. Analysis of Material Jetting Hardware Metrics

2.4. Primary Metal Dental 3D Print Processes: Metal Powder Bed Fusion

2.4.1. Analysis of Metal Powder Bed Fusion Hardware Market Metrics

2.5. Entities and Technologies Supporting Ceramic Dental 3D Printing

Chapter Three: Evolution in Dental 3D Printing Applications

3.1. Applications for the Dental Office

3.2.2.1. Teaching and Communicative Models

3.1.2. Printed Temporary Restorations and Related Applications

3.1.2.1. Penetration and Opportunity for Printed Temporaries

3.1.3. 3D-Printed Dental Surgical Guides

3.1.3.1. Penetration and Market Opportunity for Printed Surgical Guides

3.1.4. Value-Added 3D-Printed Orthodontic Devices (Trays, Splints, and More)

3.1.4.1. Penetration and Market Opportunity for Printed Ortho Devices

3.2. Applications for the Laboratory and Production Center

3.2.1. 3D-printed Patterns for Investment Casting of Dental Restorations

3.2.1.1. Penetration and Opportunity for 3D Printing Wax Investment Casting in Dental Markets

3.2.2. 3D Printed Stone and Ortho Dental Models

3.2.2.1. Penetration and Opportunity Analysis for Dental Models

3.2.3. Clear Dental Aligners and Aligner Forming Tools

3.2.3.1. Penetration and Opportunity Analysis for Printed Aligners and Tools

3.2.4. Metal Printed Dental Implant Components

3.2.4.1. Potential Implant Applications for Metal AM

3.2.4.1. Penetration and Market Opportunity for Printed Dental Implant Components

3.2.5. Metal Dental Restorations (Crown and Bridge)

3.2.5.1. Penetration and Market Opportunity for Metal Printed Crowns and Bridges

3.2.6. Polymer Printed Denture Applications

3.2.6.1. Penetrati
on and Market Opportunity for Polymer Printed Denture Components

3.2.7. Removable Partial Denture Frameworks

3.2.7.1. Penetration and Market Opportunity for Realistic Partial Denture Frameworks

3.3. Specialty and Emerging Applications for the Future

3.3.1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Oral Appliances

3.3.2. Printed Permanent Aesthetic Restorations

3.3.3. Directly Printed Clear Orthodontic Aligners

Chapter Four: Analysis of the Dental 3D Printing Competitive Landscape in 2018

4.1. Competitive Trends in 2017 Shaping the Future Landscape

4.2. Analysis of Primary Dental 3D Printing Solutions Market – Hardware and Materials

4.2.1. 3D Systems (including Vertex Global)

4.2.9. Prodways (including DeltaMed)

4.3. Analysis of Supporting Dental 3D Printing Software Market

Chapter Five: Ten-Year Dental 3D Printing Market Forecasts

5.2. Ten-Year Forecasts of Key Dental 3D Printing Market Opportunities and Metrics

5.2.1. Rollup of Opportunity Forecasts by Country

5.2.2. Rollup of Opportunity Forecasts by User Group (Dental Office versus Labor/Production Center)

5.3. Ten-Year Forecasts of Dental 3D Printing Hardware Shipments and Installations

5.3.1. Country Level Hardware Forecasts

5.4. Ten-Year Forecasts of 3D Printing Materials Consumed by Dental Applications

5.4.1. UV Curable Dental Resin Market Forecasts

5.4.1. Dental Metal Powder Market Forecasts

5.5. Ten-Year Forecasts of Dental 3D Printing Services and Software

5.5.1. Dental 3D Printing Software Opportunities

Acronyms and Abbreviations Used In this Report

Exhibit 1-1: Summary of Major Global Dental Trends and Their Impact on 3D Printing Adoption

Exhibit 1-2: Total Projected Dental 3D Printing Opportunities, by End-User Segment, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 1-3: Primary Dental 3D Printing Applications for the Laboratory and Dental Production Center

Exhibit 1-4: Primary Dental 3D Printing Applications for the Dental Office and Clinic

Exhibit 1-5: Projected Unit Sales of Digital Dental Systems – Subtractive Milling Systems versus Additive 3D Printing Systems, 2016-2022

Exhibit 1-6: Application of Subtractive and Additive Digital Dental Solutions to the Dental Device Application Spectrum

Exhibit 1-7: Scenario Analysis for Continued Penetration of 3DP into Milling-Dominant Applications

Exhibit 1-8: High Speed Photopolymerization Printer Developments

Exhibit 1-9: Total Dental Photopolymerization Unit Sales of Professional and Industrial Technologies, by Tech Generation Category, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 1-10: Total Projected Production Volume for Directly Printed Aesthetic Permanent Dental Restorations, Crown and Bridge Units, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 1-11: Projected Dental 3D Printing Revenues, Metals Segment, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 1-12: Projected Dental 3D Printing Revenues, Non-Metals Segment, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 1-13: Estimated Technology Penetration Rate for 3D Printing in Dentistry, by User Group, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 1-14: Estimated Technology Penetration Rate for 3D Printing in Dental Laboratories, by Region, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 2-1: Key Print Technology Capabilities for Polymer Printers in Dental Applications

Exhibit 2-2: Key Print Technology Capabilities for Metal Printers in Dental Applications

Exhibit 2-3: DLP Based Vat Photopolymerization Processes Market Overview

Exhibit 2-4: Dental Photopolymerization Printers by Classification

Exhibit 2-5: Dental Photopolymer Resin Products

Exhibit 2-6: Average Selling Price Laser Based Photopolymerization Dental Printers, by Classification, 2017

Exhibit 2-7: Average Selling Price DLP-Based Photopolymerization Dental Printers, by Classification, 2017

Exhibit 2-8: Average Selling Price All Photopolymerization Dental Printers, by Classification, 2017

Exhibit 2-9: Dental Photopolymerization Printer 2017 Market Share (Revenue vs. Units), All User Groups, All System Classifications

Exhibit 2-10: Dental Photopolymerization Printer 2017 Market Share (Revenue), Laboratories and Production Centers, All System Classifications

Exhibit 2-11: Dental Photopolymerization Printer 2017 Market Share (Revenue vs. Units), Dental Offices and Clinics, All System Classifications

Exhibit 2-12: Relevant Dental Material Jetting Hardware Releases (Last 18 Months)

Exhibit 2-13: Material Jetting 3D Printers for Dental Applications

Exhibit 2-14: Currently Available Material Jetting Dental Materials

Exhibit 2-15: Average Selling Price Dental Material Jetting Dental Printers, by Classification, 2017

Exhibit 2-16: Dental Material Jetting Printer 2017 Market Share (Revenue), Laboratories and Production Centers, All System Classifications

Exhibit 2-17: Currently Available Metal Powder Bed Fusion Dental Systems

Exhibit 2-18: Average Selling Price Dental Metal PBF Printers, by Classification, 2015-2017(e)

Exhibit 2-19: Metal Powder Bed Fusion Dental Market Shares (Revenue), Dental Laboratories and Production Centers, 2017

Exhibit 2-20: Summary of Currently Available Ceramic Photopolymerization 3D Printing Techniques and Providers

Exhibit 3-1: Overview of Printable Dental Temporary Materials

Exhibit 3-2: Total Projected 3D Printed Dental Temporary Restorations, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 3-3: Total Projected 3D Printed Dental Surgical Guides, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 3-4: Total Projected 3D Printed Value-Added Orthodontic Devices, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 3-5: Total Projected 3D Printed Investment Casting Patterns, by Type, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 3-6: Total Projected 3D Printed Dental Stone and Ortho Models, by Type, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 3-7: Total Projected 3D Printed Clear Aligner Components, by Type, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 3-8: Total Projected Directly Printed Dental Implant Component, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 3-9: Summary of Metal AM Value Proposition for Dental Restorations

Exhibit 3-10: Total Projected Directly Printed PFM Restoration Structures, Crown and Bridge Units, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 3-11: Total Projected 3D Printed Removable Denture Components, by Type, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 3-12: Total Projected 3D-Printed Removable Partial Frameworks, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 3-13: Total Projected Sleep Related Oral Appliance Therapy Devices Printed, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 3-14: Potential Effects to Relevant 3D Printing Dental Applications in the Theoretical Development of Printed Permanent Aesthetic Restorations

Exhibit 3-15: Total Projected 3D Printed Permanent Aesthetic Restorations, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 4-1: Notable Dental Industry and 3DP Industry Business Partnerships and Ventures

Exhibit 5-1: Total Projected Dental 3D Printing Revenue Opportunity, by Category, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-2: Comparison of Total Dental 3D Printing Revenue Expectations, Previous versus Current Market Scenario Assumptions

Exhibit 5-3: Total Projected Dental 3D Printing Revenues, by Region, all Opportunity Categories, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-4: Total Projected Dental 3D Printing Revenues, by Country, all Opportunity Categories, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-5: Total Projected Dental 3D Printing Revenues, by Country, all Opportunity Categories, 2016

Exhibit 5-6: Projected Dental 3D Printing Hardware and Material Revenues, by End User Category, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-7: Projected Dental 3D Printing Hardware Revenues, by End-User Category, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-8: Projected Dental 3D Printing Material Revenues, by End-User Category, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-9: Projected Dental 3D Printing Hardware Shipments, by End User Category, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-10: Projected Dental 3D Printing Hardware Revenues in Photopolymerization and Material Jetting Technology, by End-User Category, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-11: Projected Dental 3D Printing Installations in Photopolymerization and Material Jetting Technology, by End-User Category, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-12: Total Proje
cted Dental 3D Printer Revenues, by Technology, Global, 2015-2027(e) – All Printer Classes

Exhibit 5-13: Total Projected Dental 3D Printer Revenues, by Technology, Global, 2015-2027(e) – Professional and Industrial Printers

Exhibit 5-14: Total Projected Dental 3D Printer Revenues, by Technology, Global, 2015-2027(e) – Low-Cost Printers Only

Exhibit 5-15: Total Projected Dental 3D Printer Shipments, by Technology, Global, 2015-2027(e) – All Printer Classes

Exhibit 5-16: Total Projected Dental 3D Printer Shipments, by Technology, Global, 2015-2027(e) – Low-Cost Printers Only

Exhibit 5-17: Total Projected Dental 3D Printer Installations, by Technology, Global, 2015-2027(e) – All Printer Classes

Exhibit 5-18: Total Projected Dental 3D Printer Installations, by Technology, Global, 2015-2027(e) – Low-Cost Printers Only

Exhibit 5-19: Total Dental 3D Printer Hardware Revenues by Country, All Technologies and Printer Classes, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-20: Total Projected Dental Print Material Revenues, by Material Family, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-21: Projected Total Dental Print Material Revenues, All Technologies and Materials, by System Classification, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-22: Projected UV Curable Dental Photopolymer Revenues from Vat-Based Technologies, by Subcategory, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-23: Projected UV Curable Dental Photopolymer Revenues from Jetting-Based Technologies, by Subcategory, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-24: Projected UV Curable Dental Photopolymer Shipments, by Technology and Material Subcategory, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-25: Projected UV Curable Dental Photopolymer Selling Price, by Technology and Material Subcategory, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-26: Projected Dental Print Material Revenues, All Technologies, by Country, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-27: Projected Dental Metal Powder Material Revenues, by Alloy Family, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-28: Projected Dental Metal Powder Material Shipments, by Alloy Family, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-29: Total Market Opportunity Dental 3D Printing Services, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-30: Total Market Opportunity Dental 3D Printing Services, by Application Category, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-31: Total Market Opportunity Dental 3D Printing Services, All Applications, by Country, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-32: Projected Dental 3D Printing Software Revenues, by Software Tool Functionality, 2015-2027(e)

Exhibit 5-33: Projected Dental 3D Printing Software Revenues, by Country, 2015-2027(e)

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3D Printing Additive Manufacturing Polymers and Processes

3D Printing / Additive Manufacturing: Polymers & Processes

Materials Used in Additive Manufacturing Processes

3D Printing / Additive Manufacturing Polymers and Processes

The global additive manufacturing industry has progressed very quickly offering broader and high value applications. This accelerating shift has been due to its advantages over conventional manufacturing. This guide would give you insights into the latest applications trends, classification of additive manufacturing processes, materials used in these processes and more.

Additive Manufacturing Introduction

Additive Manufacturing Processes Classification

Materials Used in Additive Manufacturing Processes

Additive Manufacturing Application Trends

In the photopolymerization process (also known as stereolithography) a pre-deposited liquid photopolymer in a vat is selectively cured by light activated polymerization (Figure 2). It is one of the earliest and most widely used rapid prototyping technology. Photopolymerization builds parts a layer at a time by tracing a highly focused UV or laser beam on the surface of the liquid polymer.

Materials Used in Photopolymerization process

The polymeric materials used in the photopolymerization process are mainlyradiation curing acrylics and acrylic hybrids.

Figure 2 Photopolymerization additive manufacturing process

The light activated polymer quickly solidifies wherever the beam strikes the surface of the liquid. Once one layer is traced, it is lowered a small distance into the vat and a second layer is traced on top of the first layer. The self-adhesive property of the photopolymer causes the layers to bond to one another, and eventually a complete three-dimensional object is fully deposited and hardened. Designs are then immersed in a chemical bath in order to remove any excess resin and post-cured in an ultraviolet oven. It is also possible to print objects bottom up by using a vat with a somewhat flexible, transparent bottom, and focusing the UV upward through the bottom of the vat.

Photopolymerization General Characteristics

Photopolymerization generally provides the greatest accuracy and best surface finish of any AM prototyping technology. Over the years, a wide range of materials with properties mimicking those of engineering thermoplastics have been developed. Other characteristics of the photopolymerization process include:

Support structures are required during build

Post-processing is required to wash and post cure parts

Advantages: high resolution and accuracy, ability to produce complex parts, smooth surface, accommodates large build areas

Weaknesses: parts are not as durable as those manufactured with other AM processes

Major applications: prototyping, consumer toys, electronics, guides and fixtures.

Although photopolymerization can be used to produce virtually any design, it is often costly. The cost of resin and stereolithography machines was once very high. Recently,interest in 3D printable products has inspired the design of several models of 3D printerswhich feature drastically reduced prices (less than $10,000 for an industrial sized printer. Several companies are now producing photopolymerizable resins at prices as low as $80 per liter.

Photopolymers used in 3D imaging processes must be designed to have a low volume shrinkage on polymerization in order to avoid distortion of the solid object. Common monomers utilized include multifunctional acrylates and methacrylates combined with a non-polymeric component in order to reduce volume shrinkage. A competing composite mixture of epoxide resins with cationic photoinitiators is becoming increasingly used since their volume shrinkage upon ring-opening polymerization is significantly below those of acrylates and methacrylates. Free-radical and cationic polymerizations composed of both epoxide and acrylate monomers have also been employed, gaining the high rate of polymerization from the acrylic monomer and better mechanical properties from the epoxy matrix.

Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP)

Although stereolithography was originally touted as a fast process for building prototype models, it is not fast enough for most full-production manufacturing. Conventional 3D printing processes are in reality only two-dimensional printing that is done over and over again. Full parts may take many hours or even days to produce. Very recently, a new photopolymerizaton technology, called Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP), was introduced that claims speeds 25-100 times faster than traditional 3D printing.

The CLIP process works by carefully balancing the interaction of UV light (which initiates photopolymerization) and oxygen (which inhibits the reaction). Part production is achieved with an oxygen-permeable window below the UV image projection plane. This creates a dead-zone where photopolymerization is inhibited between the window and the elevating polymerizing part (Figure 3). In this way parts that usually take hours to manufacture can be made in minutes.

The Continuous Liquid Interface Production process enables fast print speeds and layerless part construction

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